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Acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome are major causes of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. This review focuses on new developments in definitions, epidemiology, clinical and basic research, and promising new directions in treatment. There is new information about the potential contribution of environmental factors,(More)
The airway surface liquid (ASL) is the thin layer of fluid coating the luminal surface of airway epithelial cells at an air interface. Its composition and osmolality are thought to be important in normal airway physiology and in airway diseases such as asthma and cystic fibrosis. The determinants of ASL osmolality include epithelial cell solute and water(More)
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein, an epithelial chloride channel expressed in the airways, pancreas, testis, and other tissues. A central question is how defective CFTR function in CF leads to chronic lung infection and deterioration of lung function. Several mechanisms have been(More)
The mammalian peripheral lung contains at least three aquaporin (AQP) water channels: AQP1 in microvascular endothelia, AQP4 in airway epithelia, and AQP5 in alveolar epithelia. In this study, we determined the role of AQP4 in airspace-to-capillary water transport by comparing water permeability in wild-type mice and transgenic null mice lacking AQP1, AQP4,(More)
Previous studies in intact lung suggest that CFTR may play a role in cAMP-regulated fluid transport from the distal air spaces of the lung. However, the potential contribution of different epithelial cells (alveolar epithelial type I, type II, or bronchial epithelial cells) to CFTR-regulated fluid transport is unknown. In this study we determined whether(More)
BACKGROUND The world's first reported patient infected with avian influenza H7N9 was treated at the Fifth People's Hospital of Shanghai. Shortly thereafter, several other cases emerged in the local area. Here, we describe the detailed epidemiological and clinical data of 6 cases of avian influenza H7N9. METHODS AND FINDINGS We analyzed the epidemiologic(More)
INTRODUCTION Dexamethasone (DEX) co-treatment has proved beneficial in NSCLC patients, improving clinical symptoms by the reduction of side effects after chemotherapy. However, recent studies have shown that DEX could render cancer cells more insensitive to cytotoxic drug therapy, but it is not known whether DEX co-treatment could influence therapy-induced(More)
Several aquaporin-type water channels are expressed in mammalian airways and lung: AQP1 in microvascular endothelia, AQP3 in upper airway epithelia, AQP4 in upper and lower airway epithelia, and AQP5 in alveolar epithelia. Novel quantitative methods were developed to compare airway fluid transport-related functions in wild-type mice and knockout mice(More)
A murine model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) was used to evaluate whether aquaporin-1 (AQP1) is involved in lung inflammation and lung edema formation. Swiss strain mice (n = 122) had LPS (5 mg/kg) instilled intratracheally (IT), and were then treated with either 0.9 % saline or dexamethasone (5 mg/kg/day). Mice were euthanized(More)
OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) regulates infection and inflammation. In this study, we investigated whether a lack of functional CFTR in neutrophils would promote lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung inflammation and injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS CFTR-inhibited or F508del-CFTR-mutated neutrophils were(More)