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The ability to regenerate damaged tissues is a common characteristic of multicellular organisms. We report a role for apoptotic cell death in promoting wound healing and tissue regeneration in mice. Apoptotic cells released growth signals that stimulated the proliferation of progenitor or stem cells. Key players in this process were caspases 3 and 7,(More)
In cancer treatment, apoptosis is a well-recognized cell death mechanism through which cytotoxic agents kill tumor cells. Here we report that dying tumor cells use the apoptotic process to generate potent growth-stimulating signals to stimulate the repopulation of tumors undergoing radiotherapy. Furthermore, activated caspase 3, a key executioner in(More)
Previous reports have suggested a connection between reduced levels of the catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinases (DNA-PKcs), a component of the nonhomologous DNA double-strand breaks end-joining system, and a reduction in ATM. We studied this possible connection in other DNA-PKcs-deficient cell types, and following knockdown of DNA-PKcs with(More)
DNA fragmentation is a hallmark of apoptosis (programmed cell death). However, the biological function of apoptotic DNA fragmentation remains unclear. Here, we show that DNA fragmentation factor plays an important role for maintaining genomic stability. Inhibition or loss of the DNA fragmentation factor (DFF)/caspase-activated DNase (CAD), whose nuclease(More)
Targeted gene silencing in mammalian cells by RNA interference (RNAi) using small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) was recently described by Elbashir et al. (S. M. Elbashir et al., Nature (Lond.), 411: 494-498, 2001). We have used this methodology in several human cell strains to reduce expression of the Prkdc (DNA-PKcs) gene coding for the catalytic subunit of(More)
Basic to virtually all relevant biological effects of ionizing radiation is the underlying damage produced in DNA and the subsequent cellular processing of such damage. The damage can be qualitatively different for different kinds of radiations, and the genetics of the biological systems exposed can greatly affect damage processing and ultimate outcome--the(More)
Since deletion of the PU.1 gene on chromosome 2 is a crucial acute myeloid leukemia (AML) initiating step in the mouse model, we quantified PU.1 deleted cells in the bone marrow of gamma-, X- and 56Fe-ion-irradiated mice at various times postirradiation. Although 56Fe ions were initially some two to three times more effective than X or gamma rays in(More)
It has been argued that the cell-cell and cell-matrix interaction networks in normal tissues are disrupted by radiation and that this largely controls many of the most important cellular radiation responses. This has led to the broader assertion that individual cells in normal tissue or a 3D normal-tissue-like culture will respond to radiation very(More)
The catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) is the key functional element in the DNA-PK complex that drives nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), the predominant DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair mechanism operating to rejoin such breaks in mammalian cells after exposure to ionizing radiation. It has been reported that DNA-PKcs(More)
To have an impact on risk assessment for purposes of radiation protection recommendations, significantly broad variations in carcinogenic radiosensitivity would have to exist in significant proportions in the human population. Even if we knew all the genes where mutations would have major effects, individual genome sequencing does not seem useful, since we(More)