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WRKY proteins are newly identified transcription factors involved in many plant processes including plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. To date, genes encoding WRKY proteins have been identified only from plants. Comprehensive search for WRKY genes in non-plant organisms and phylogenetic analysis would provide invaluable information about the(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in gene expression regulation in animals and plants. Since plant miRNAs recognize their target mRNAs by near-perfect base pairing, computational sequence similarity search can be used to identify potential targets. A web-based integrated computing system, miRU, has been developed for plant miRNA target gene prediction(More)
Plants contain significant quantities of small RNAs (sRNAs) derived from various sRNA biogenesis pathways. Many of these sRNAs play regulatory roles in plants. Previous analysis revealed that numerous sRNAs in corn, rice and soybean seeds have high sequence similarity to animal genes. However, exogenous RNA is considered to be unstable within the(More)
Successful application of posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) for gene function study in both plants and animals depends on high target specificity and silencing efficiency. By computational analysis with genome and/or transcriptome sequences of 25 plant species, we predicted that about 50% to 70% of gene transcripts in plants have potential(More)
965 chow preparation where we observed the expected distribution and abundance of rice miRNAs. Oryza sativa (rice) osa-miR168a was among the most abundant miRNAs (Supplementary Table 1) in both ricecontaining chow and rice grain, consistent with previous reports9,12. Diet composition had no impact on food consumption (Supplementary Fig. 1). Following(More)
Eukaryotic organisms possess a complex RNA-directed gene expression regulatory network allowing the production of unique gene expression patterns. A recent addition to the repertoire of RNA-based gene regulation is miRNA target decoys, endogenous RNA that can negatively regulate miRNA activity. miRNA decoys have been shown to be a valuable tool for(More)
Environmental RNAi (eRNAi) is a sequence-specific regulation of endogenous gene expression in a receptive organism by exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Although demonstrated under artificial dietary conditions and via transgenic plant presentations in several herbivorous insects, the magnitude and consequence of exogenous dsRNA uptake and the role of(More)
The discovery of environmental RNA interference (RNAi), in which gene expression is suppressed via feeding with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) molecules, opened the door to the practical application of RNAi-based techniques in crop pest management. The western corn rootworm (WCR, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) is one of the most devastating corn pests in(More)
The role of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), both short and long ncRNAs, in the regulation of gene expression has become evident in recent years. Non-coding RNA-based regulation is achieved through a variety of mechanisms; some are relatively well-characterized, while others are much less understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of endogenous small RNAs, function(More)
In a virus-infected plant, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) corresponding to the viral genome form a large proportion of the small RNA population. It is possible to reassemble significant portions of the virus sequence from overlapping siRNA sequences and use these to identify the virus. We tested this technique with a resistance-breaking and a(More)