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Fleshy fruits are classically divided into climacteric and nonclimacteric types. It has long been thought that the ripening of climacteric and nonclimacteric fruits is regulated by ethylene and abscisic acid (ABA), respectively. Here, we report that sucrose functions as a signal in the ripening of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa), a nonclimacteric fruit.… (More)
Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases) have long been thought to be activated by reductants and deactivated by oxidants, owing to the presence of a crucial sulfhydryl group in their catalytic centers. In this article, we report the purification and characterization of Reductant-Inhibited PTPase1 (ZmRIP1) from maize (Zea mays) coleoptiles, and show that… (More)
DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification essential for gene regulations in plants, but understanding on how it is involved in fruit development, especially in non-climacteric fleshy fruit, is limited. The diploid woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) is an important model for non-climacteric fruit crops. In this study, we identified DNA… (More)
The use of catalytic metal carbene methodology with diazoacetates for the construction in high yield of polyether macrocycles having ring sizes greater than 25 has been achieved by preventing access to gamma-C-H positions for intramolecular insertion. Cyclopropanation is the exclusive outcome of reactions performed with dirhodium(II) catalysts, and product… (More)
[reaction: see text] Two sequential intramolecular carbon-hydrogen insertion or cyclopropanation reactions of bis-diazoacetates using chiral dirhodium(II) carboxamidate catalysts are reported. The initial metal carbene transformation forms an excess of one enantiomer that with the second transformation further enhances stereocontrol (kinetic amplification).… (More)
Ammonium ylides generated in situ from [small alpha]-diazo esters and amines in the presence of catalytic Rh2(OAc)4, undergo an aldol-type reaction with aldehydes affording highly substituted amino acid frameworks in a convergent, three-component reaction.
This paper investigates the modeling and stability of a class of finite evolutionary games with time delays in strategies. First, the evolutionary dynamics of a sequence of strategy profiles, named as the profile trajectory, is proposed to describe the strategy updating process of the evolutionary games with time delays. Using the semi-tensor product of… (More)