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In this paper, we reveal a common deficiency of the current retrieval models: the component of term frequency (TF) normalization by document length is not lower-bounded properly; as a result, very long documents tend to be overly penalized. In order to analytically diagnose this problem, we propose two desirable formal constraints to capture the heuristic(More)
We reveal that the Okapi BM25 retrieval function tends to overly penalize very long documents. To address this problem, we present a simple yet effective extension of BM25, namely BM25L, which "shifts" the term frequency normalization formula to boost scores of very long documents. Our experiments show that BM25L, with the same computation cost, is more(More)
We systematically compare five representative state-of-the-art methods for estimating query language models with pseudo feedback in ad hoc information retrieval, including two variants of the relevance language model, two variants of the mixture feedback model, and the divergence minimization estimation method. Our experiment results show that a variant of(More)
Pseudo-relevance feedback has proven effective for improving the average retrieval performance. Unfortunately, many experiments have shown that although pseudo-relevance feedback helps many queries, it also often hurts many other queries, limiting its usefulness in real retrieval applications. Thus an important, yet difficult challenge is to improve the(More)
The multinomial language model has been one of the most effective models of retrieval for more than a decade. However, the multinomial distribution does not model one important linguistic phenomenon relating to term dependency—that is, the tendency of a term to repeat itself within a document (i.e., word burstiness). In this article, we model document(More)
When consuming content in applications such as e-readers, word processors, and Web browsers, users often see mentions to topics (or concepts) that attract their attention. In a scenario of significant practical interest, topics are explored in situ, without leaving the context of the application: The user selects a mention of a topic (in the form of(More)