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Despite the characterization of neuroprotection by transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1), the signaling pathway mediating its protective effect is unclear. Bad is a proapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family and is inactivated on phosphorylation via mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). This study attempted to address whether MAPK signaling and Bad(More)
High-resolution susceptibility weighted MR imaging at high field strength provides excellent depiction of venous structures, blood products, and iron deposits, making it a promising complementary imaging modality for cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs). Although already introduced in 1997 and being constantly improved, susceptibility weighted imaging is(More)
CCM3, a product of the cerebral cavernous malformation 3 or programmed cell death 10 gene (CCM3/PDCD10), is broadly expressed throughout development in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Increasing evidence indicates a crucial role of CCM3 in vascular development and in regulation of angiogenesis and apoptosis. Furthermore, loss of CCM3 causes inherited(More)
A short ischemic period induced by the transient occlusion of major brain arteries induces neuronal damage in selectively vulnerable regions of the hippocampus. Adenosine is considered to be one of the major neuroprotective substances produced in the ischemic brain. It can be released from damaged cells, but it also could be generated extracellularly from(More)
Prevention of neuronal apoptosis has been introduced as a new therapeutic strategy for neurodegenerative disorders. We have previously reported anti-apoptotic effects of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1), a multifunctional cytokine, in models of cerebral ischemia and in cultured neurons and recently focused on the mechanisms underlying the(More)
Activation of astrocytes is a common feature of neurological disorders, but the importance of this phenomenon for neuronal outcome is not fully understood. Treatment of mixed hippocampal cultures of neurones and astrocytes from day 2-4 in vitro (DIV 2-4) with 1 micro m cytosine arabinofuranoside (AraC) caused an activation of astrocytes as detected by a(More)
Oxidative stress plays crucial role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. However, the precise mechanism for an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under pathological conditions is not yet fully understood. We have recently demonstrated an implication of phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN), a tumor(More)
The effect of TGF-beta1 on apoptosis varies depending on the cell type, the kind of stimulus and the experimental conditions. The present study attempted to identify whether TGF-beta1 can prevent neuronal apoptosis and interrupt caspase-3 activation in rat primary hippocampal cultures after staurosporine treatment. TGF-beta1 at the concentration of 1 and 10(More)