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BACKGROUND Analgesics, including opioids and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs reduce postoperative pain. However, little is known about the quantitative effects of these drugs on cortical activity induced by nociceptive stimulation. The aim of the present study was to determine the neural activity in response to a nociceptive stimulus and to investigate(More)
Itch and pain share similar mechanisms. It has been well documented that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is important for pain-related perception. ACC has also been approved to be a potential pruritus-associated brain region. However, the mechanism of sensitization in pruriceptive neurons in the ACC is not clear. In current study, a chronic itch model(More)
—Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is an advanced technique which aims to scan a sample through the use of a probe or a tip; however, conventional atomic force microscope system suffers from the limitation of small scanning range, due to the short travelling range of piezoelectric actuation. In this paper, we propose a large measurement-range AFM scanning(More)
In this paper, a novel design, control and implementation of a three degree-of-freedom (DOF) compact positioner is presented with high resolution in tens of nanometer-scale precision positioning and millimeter-level long travel range. According to the serial flexure mechanism design, whose motion comes from the elastic deformation of the flexure and the(More)
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