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Various new nonvolatile memory (NVM) technologies have emerged recently. Among all the investigated new NVM candidate technologies, spin-torque-transfer memory (STT-RAM, or MRAM), phase-change random-access memory (PCRAM), and resistive random-access memory (ReRAM) are regarded as the most promising candidates. As the ultimate goal of this NVM research is(More)
Magnetic random access memory (MRAM) is a promising memory technology, which has fast read access, high density, and non-volatility. Using 3D heterogeneous integrations, it becomes feasible and cost-efficient to stack MRAM atop conventional chip multiprocessors (CMPs). However, one disadvantage of MRAM is its long write latency and its high write energy. In(More)
Long interconnects are becoming an increasingly important problem from both power and performance perspectives. This motivates designers to adopt on-chip network-based communication infrastructures and three-dimensional (3D) designs where multiple device layers are stacked together. Considering the current trends towards increasing use of chip(More)
Caching techniques have been an efficient mechanism for mitigating the effects of the processor-memory speed gap. Traditional multi-level SRAM-based cache hierarchies, especially in the context of chip multiprocessors (CMPs), present many challenges in area requirements, core-to-cache balance, power consumption, and design complexity. New advancements in(More)
Magnetic Random Access Memory (MRAM) has been considered as a promising memory technology due to many attractive properties. Integrating MRAM with CMOS logic may incur extra manufacture cost, due to its hybrid magnetic-CMOS fabrication process. Stacking MRAM on top of CMOS logics using 3D integration is a way to minimize this cost overhead. In this paper,(More)
Much like multi-storey buildings in densely packed metropolises, three-dimensional (3D) chip structures are envisioned as a viable solution to skyrocketing transistor densities and burgeoning die sizes in multi-core architectures. Partitioning a larger die into smaller segments and then stacking them in a 3D fashion can significantly reduce latency and(More)
Persistent memory is an emerging technology which allows in-memory persistent data objects to be updated at much higher throughput than when using disks as persistent storage. Previous persistent memory designs use logging or copy-on-write mechanisms to update persistent data, which unfortunately reduces the system performance to roughly half that of a(More)
High density, low leakage and non-volatility are the attractive features of Spin-Transfer-Torque-RAM (STT-RAM), which has made it a strong competitor against SRAM as a universal memory replacement in multi-core systems. However, STT-RAM suffers from high write latency and energy which has impeded its widespread adoption. To this end, we look at trading-off(More)
As technology scales, interconnects dominate the performance and power behavior of deep submicron designs. Three-dimensional integrated circuits (3D ICs) have been proposed as a way to mitigate the interconnect challenges. In this paper, we explore the architectural design of cache memories using 3D circuits. We present a delay and energy model, 3DCacti, to(More)