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Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly malignant, rapidly progressive astrocytoma that is distinguished pathologically from lower grade tumors by necrosis and microvascular hyperplasia. Necrotic foci are typically surrounded by "pseudopalisading" cells-a configuration that is relatively unique to malignant gliomas and has long been recognized as an ominous(More)
The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project has generated gene expression data that divides glioblastoma (GBM) into four transcriptional classes: proneural, neural, classical, and mesenchymal. Because transcriptional class is only partially explained by underlying genomic alterations, we hypothesize that the tumor microenvironment may also have an impact. In(More)
BACKGROUND Although multiple pathological processes have been associated with oxidative stress, the causative relation between oxidative stress and arterial lesion progression remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS To test the effect of creating arterial wall oxidative stress, we compared progression of mouse carotid lesions induced by flow cessation in the(More)
Hypoxia strongly up-regulates tissue factor and promotes plasma clotting by glioblastoma multiforme, but transcriptional mechanisms remain undefined. Here, we investigated the potential roles of early growth response gene-1 (Egr-1), Sp1, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), activator protein-1 (AP-1), and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) in the hypoxic(More)
Hypoxia and necrosis are fundamental features of glioblastoma (GBM) and their emergence is critical for the rapid biological progression of this fatal tumor; yet, underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We have suggested that vaso-occlusion following intravascular thrombosis could initiate or propagate hypoxia and necrosis in GBM. Tissue factor (TF),(More)
We have previously proposed that intravascular thrombosis and subsequent vasoocclusion contribute to the development of pseudopalisading necrosis, a pathologic hallmark that distinguishes glioblastoma (WHO grade 4) from lower grade astrocytomas. To better understand the potential prothrombotic mechanisms underlying the formation of these structures that(More)
Metastatic recurrence is the most important biological behavior of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the main cause of treatment failure. Early prediction of metastasis is currently impossible due to the lack of specific molecular probes to recognize metastatic HCC cells. Aptamers have recently emerged as promising potential molecular probes for biomedical(More)
The objective of this study was to determine the characteristics of proteoglycans synthesized by canine annulus fibrosus cells expanded in number in monolayer culture through passage 4 and subsequently grown in a type I collagen-glycosaminoglycan matrix to be employed for tissue engineering. Newly synthesized [35S]sulfate-labeled proteoglycans were analyzed(More)
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most deadly human cancers due to its ability of invasion and metastasis. Thus, the approaches to identify potential compounds that inhibit invasion and metastasis of HCC are critical for treatment of this disease. In the present study, we used HCCLM9 cells with high metastatic potential and MHCC97L with low(More)
Cancer stem cells, capable of self-renewal and multipotent differentiation, influence tumor behavior through a complex balance of symmetric and asymmetric cell divisions. Mechanisms regulating the dynamics of stem cells and their progeny in human cancer are poorly understood. In Drosophila, mutation of brain tumor (brat) leads to loss of normal asymmetric(More)