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Control of transcription elongation requires a complex interplay between the recently discovered positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) and negative transcription elongation factors, 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-d-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole (DRB) sensitivity inducing factors (DSIF) and the negative elongation factor (NELF). Activation of HIV-1 gene(More)
Matter with a high energy density (>10(5) joules per cm(3)) is prevalent throughout the Universe, being present in all types of stars and towards the centre of the giant planets; it is also relevant for inertial confinement fusion. Its thermodynamic and transport properties are challenging to measure, requiring the creation of sufficiently long-lived(More)
CXCR2 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been studied mainly in stromal cells and is known to increase tumor inflammation and angiogenesis. Here, we examined the prognostic importance of CXCR2 in NSCLC and the role of CXCR2 and its ligands in lung cancer cells. The effect of CXCR2 expression on tumor cells was studied using stable knockdown clones(More)
The x-ray intensities made available by x-ray free electron lasers (FEL) open up new x-ray matter interaction channels not accessible with previous sources. We report here on the resonant generation of Kα emission, that is to say the production of copious Kα radiation by tuning the x-ray FEL pulse to photon energies below that of the K edge of a solid(More)
We describe state of the art methods for the calculation of electronic excitations in solids and molecules, based on many body perturbation theory, and we discuss some applications of these methods to the study of band edges and absorption processes in representative materials used as photoelectrodes for water splitting.
n-Type bismuth vanadate has been identified as one of the most promising photoanodes for use in a water-splitting photoelectrochemical cell. The major limitation of BiVO4 is its relatively wide bandgap (∼2.5 eV), which fundamentally limits its solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency. Here we show that annealing nanoporous bismuth vanadate electrodes at 350(More)
Using an ultrafast pulse of mega-electron-volt energy protons accelerated from a laser-irradiated foil, we have heated solid density aluminum plasmas to temperatures in excess of 15 eV. By measuring the temperature and the expansion rate of the heated Al plasma simultaneously and with picosecond time resolution we have found the predictions of the SESAME(More)
Raman amplification of subpicosecond laser pulses up to 95 times is demonstrated at corresponding frequencies in a gas-jet plasma. The larger amplification is accompanied by a broader bandwidth and shorter pulse duration. Theoretical simulations show a qualitative agreement with the measurements, and the effects of the plasma conditions and laser(More)
The intensity of a subpicosecond laser pulse was amplified by a factor of up to 1000 using the Raman backscatter interaction in a 2 mm long gas jet plasma. The process of Raman amplification reached the nonlinear regime, with the intensity of the amplified pulse exceeding that of the pump pulse by more than an order of magnitude. Features unique to the(More)
The advent of hard x-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) has opened up a variety of scientific opportunities in areas as diverse as atomic physics, plasma physics, nonlinear optics in the x-ray range, and protein crystallography. In this article, we access a new field of science by measuring quantitatively the local bulk properties and dynamics of matter under(More)