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Mutation is the ultimate source of genetic variation. The most direct and unbiased method of studying spontaneous mutations is via mutation accumulation (MA) lines. Until recently, MA experiments were limited by the cost of sequencing and thus provided us with small numbers of mutational events and therefore imprecise estimates of rates and patterns of(More)
Despite the characterization of neuroprotection by transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1), the signaling pathway mediating its protective effect is unclear. Bad is a proapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family and is inactivated on phosphorylation via mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). This study attempted to address whether MAPK signaling and Bad(More)
The sequencing of pooled non-barcoded individuals is an inexpensive and efficient means of assessing genome-wide population allele frequencies, yet its accuracy has not been thoroughly tested. We assessed the accuracy of this approach on whole, complex eukaryotic genomes by resequencing pools of largely isogenic, individually sequenced Drosophila(More)
Activation of astrocytes is a common feature of neurological disorders, but the importance of this phenomenon for neuronal outcome is not fully understood. Treatment of mixed hippocampal cultures of neurones and astrocytes from day 2-4 in vitro (DIV 2-4) with 1 micro m cytosine arabinofuranoside (AraC) caused an activation of astrocytes as detected by a(More)
Activation of astrocytes occurs during many forms of CNS injury, but its importance for neuronal survival is poorly understood. When hippocampal cultures of neurons and astrocytes were treated from day 2-4 in vitro (DIV 2-4) with 1 microM cytosine arabinofuranoside (AraC), we observed a stellation of astrocytes, an increase in glial fibrillary acidic(More)
Budding yeast has undergone several independent transitions from commercial to clinical lifestyles. The frequency of such transitions suggests that clinical yeast strains are derived from environmentally available yeast populations, including commercial sources. However, despite their important role in adaptive evolution, the prevalence of polyploidy and(More)
The protein-folding chaperone Hsp90 has been proposed to buffer the phenotypic effects of mutations. The potential for Hsp90 and other putative buffers to increase robustness to mutation has had major impact on disease models, quantitative genetics, and evolutionary theory. But Hsp90 sometimes contradicts expectations for a buffer by potentiating rapid(More)
We are pleased to learn that our mutation accumulation (MA) dataset of 864 single nucleotide mutations (SNMs) in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (1) has attracted interest and is being applied to other analyses. MA mutations in large numbers can provide an unbiased picture of genome-wide patterns. One previously observed pattern is a positive(More)
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