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Particulate matter emissions from a series of different Chinese coal combustion systems were collected and analyzed for elemental and organic carbon (EC, OC), and molecular markers. Emissions from both industrial boilers and residential stoves were investigated. The coal used in this study included anthracite, bituminite, and brown coal, as well as commonly(More)
Virus attachment to cells plays an essential role in viral tropism and disease. Reovirus serotypes 1 and 3 differ in the capacity to target distinct cell types in the murine nervous system and in the efficiency to induce apoptosis. The binding of viral attachment protein sigma1 to unidentified receptors controls these phenotypes. We used expression cloning(More)
As top predators, falcons possess unique morphological, physiological and behavioral adaptations that allow them to be successful hunters: for example, the peregrine is renowned as the world's fastest animal. To examine the evolutionary basis of predatory adaptations, we sequenced the genomes of both the peregrine (Falco peregrinus) and saker falcon (Falco(More)
Evolution is typically thought to proceed through divergence of genes, proteins and ultimately phenotypes. However, similar traits might also evolve convergently in unrelated taxa owing to similar selection pressures. Adaptive phenotypic convergence is widespread in nature, and recent results from several genes have suggested that this phenomenon is(More)
The allyl moiety of the immunosuppressive agent FK506 is structurally unique among polyketides and critical for its potent biological activity. Here, we detail the biosynthetic pathway to allylmalonyl-coenzyme A (CoA), from which the FK506 allyl group is derived, based on a comprehensive chemical, biochemical, and genetic interrogation of three FK506 gene(More)
Obesity is characterized by accumulation of excess body fat, while lipodystrophy is characterized by loss or absence of body fat. Despite their opposite phenotypes, these two conditions both cause ectopic lipid storage in non-adipose tissues, leading to lipotoxicity, which has health-threatening consequences. The exact mechanisms underlying ectopic lipid(More)
Cryptophyte and chlorarachniophyte algae are transitional forms in the widespread secondary endosymbiotic acquisition of photosynthesis by engulfment of eukaryotic algae. Unlike most secondary plastid-bearing algae, miniaturized versions of the endosymbiont nuclei (nucleomorphs) persist in cryptophytes and chlorarachniophytes. To determine why, and to(More)
A correlation method was recently adopted to identify selection-favored 'optimal' codons from 675 bacterial genomes. Surprisingly, the identities of these optimal codons were found to track the bacterial GC content, leading to a conclusion that selection would generally shape the codon usages to the same direction as the overall mutation does. Raising(More)
Domestication of the now-extinct wild aurochs, Bos primigenius, gave rise to the two major domestic extant cattle taxa, B. taurus and B. indicus. While previous genetic studies have shed some light on the evolutionary relationships between European aurochs and modern cattle, important questions remain unanswered, including the phylogenetic status of(More)