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BACKGROUND The long-term use of methamphetamine (MAMP) can result in psychosis but it is not clear why some individuals develop psychotic symptoms, while others use MAMP regularly over long periods and remain unscathed. We set out to characterize MAMP users and to examine the relationship of pre-morbid personality, pre-morbid social function and other(More)
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) supports growth and survival of dopaminergic (DA) neurons. A replication-defective adenoviral (Ad) vector encoding human GDNF injected near the rat substantia nigra was found to protect DA neurons from the progressive degeneration induced by the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) injected into the(More)
Previously, we observed that an adenoviral (Ad) vector encoding human glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), injected near the rat substantia nigra (SN), protects SN dopaminergic (DA) neuronal soma from 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced degeneration. In the present study, the effects of Ad GDNF injected into the striatum, the site of DA nerve(More)
To facilitate clinical applications of retroviral-mediated human gene transfer, retroviral vectors must be of high titer and free of detectable replication-competent retroviruses. The purpose of this study was to optimize methods of retroviral vector production and transduction. Studies were conducted using 22 retroviral vector producer cell lines.(More)
In 1990, a clinical trial was started using retroviral-mediated transfer of the adenosine deaminase (ADA) gene into the T cells of two children with severe combined immunodeficiency (ADA- SCID). The number of blood T cells normalized as did many cellular and humoral immune responses. Gene treatment ended after 2 years, but integrated vector and ADA gene(More)
Intratumoral implantation of murine cells modified to produce retroviral vectors containing the herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) gene induces regression of experimental brain tumors in rodents after ganciclovir (GCV) administration. We evaluated this approach in 15 patients with progressive growth of recurrent malignant brain tumors. Antitumor(More)
Transducing and distributing a vector throughout a tumor mass are presently insufficient for effective cancer gene therapy. To overcome these difficulties an adenoviral vector was designed that would replicate specifically in tumor cells. This tumor-specific replication-restricted adenoviral (TSRRA) vector was constructed by requiring that the essential E1A(More)
A bystander effect is described when nontransduced or genetically unmodified cells are killed during death of genetically modified tumor cells transduced with a suicide gene. The "bystander effect" greatly enhances the efficacy of the herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase/ganciclovir (HSV-TK/GCV) gene therapy approach for cancer. The mechanism of the(More)
Transfer of the herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) gene into tumor cells followed by ganciclovir (GCV) administration, will provide selective tumor cell killing. We studied the effect of herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) expression level on the HSV-tk/GCV-mediated "bystander effect." Clones of HSV-tk-transduced rat glioma(More)