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A role for the Pax-6 homologue eyeless in adult Drosophila brain development and function is described. eyeless expression is detected in neurons, but not glial cells, of the mushroom bodies, the medullar cortex, the lateral horn, and the pars intercerebralis. Furthermore, severe defects in adult brain structures essential for vision, olfaction, and for the(More)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) modulates several cell signaling pathways in the hippocampus critical for memory formation. Previous studies have found that the cAMP-protein kinase A signaling pathway is downregulated after TBI and that treatment with a phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4 inhibitor rolipram rescues the decrease in cAMP. In the present study, we examined(More)
Previously we have shown that tamoxifen (TAM) induces morphological and biochemical changes typical of apoptosis in oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive MCF-7 or ER-negative MDA-231 human breast cancer cells. In this study the effects of TAM on expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) were correlated with the effects on cell cycle kinetics(More)
The pathway supporting the conditioned stimulus (CS) is one site of plasticity that has been studied extensively in conditioned Hermissenda. Several signal transduction pathways have been implicated in classical conditioning of this preparation, although the major emphasis has been on protein kinase C. Here we provide evidence for the activation and(More)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) pathology includes contusions, cavitation, cell death, all of which can be exacerbated by inflammation. We hypothesized that an anti-inflammatory drug, rolipram, may reduce pathology after TBI, since in several CNS injury models rolipram reduces inflammation and improves cell survival and functional recovery. Adult male C57BL/6(More)
Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3 was identified initially as an enzyme that regulates glycogen synthesis in response to insulin, but more recent studies indicate that it is also involved in numerous cellular processes, including cell survival, cell cycle regulation, proliferation, and differentiation. Because extracellular ATP exerts trophic actions on(More)
Gliosis is a hypertrophic and hyperplastic response to many types of central nervous system injury, including trauma, stroke, seizure, as well as neurodegenerative and demyelinating disorders. Reactive astrocytes, a major component of the glial scar, express molecules that can both inhibit and promote axonal regeneration. ATP, which is released upon(More)
Extracellular ATP enhances the mitogenic activity of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) in astrocytes, but the molecular mechanism underlying this synergistic interaction is not known. To determine whether the potentiating effect of extracellular ATP involves cell cycle control mechanisms, we have measured the expression of cyclins that are induced in(More)
Gliosis is characterized by hypertrophic and hyperplastic responses of astrocytes to brain injury. To determine whether injury of astrocytes produced by an in vitro model of brain trauma activates extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), a key regulator of cellular proliferation and differentiation, astrocytes cultured on deformable SILASTIC(More)