Yuan Kang

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Gliosis is a hypertrophic and hyperplastic response to many types of central nervous system injury, including trauma, stroke, seizure, as well as neurodegenerative and demyelinating disorders. Reactive astrocytes, a major component of the glial scar, express molecules that can both inhibit and promote axonal regeneration. ATP, which is released upon(More)
Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3 was identified initially as an enzyme that regulates glycogen synthesis in response to insulin, but more recent studies indicate that it is also involved in numerous cellular processes, including cell survival, cell cycle regulation, proliferation, and differentiation. Because extracellular ATP exerts trophic actions on(More)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) pathology includes contusions, cavitation, cell death, all of which can be exacerbated by inflammation. We hypothesized that an anti-inflammatory drug, rolipram, may reduce pathology after TBI, since in several CNS injury models rolipram reduces inflammation and improves cell survival and functional recovery. Adult male C57BL/6(More)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) modulates several cell signaling pathways in the hippocampus critical for memory formation. Previous studies have found that the cAMP-protein kinase A signaling pathway is downregulated after TBI and that treatment with a phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4 inhibitor rolipram rescues the decrease in cAMP. In the present study, we examined(More)
Gliosis is characterized by hypertrophic and hyperplastic responses of astrocytes to brain injury. To determine whether injury of astrocytes produced by an in vitro model of brain trauma activates extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), a key regulator of cellular proliferation and differentiation, astrocytes cultured on deformable SILASTIC(More)
1. Emerging evidence indicates that nucleotide receptors are widely expressed in the nervous system. Here, we present evidence that P2Y and P2X receptors, particularly the P2X(7) subtype, are coupled to the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway in astrocytes. 2. P2Y and P2X receptor agonists ATP, uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP) and(More)
In the CNS, extracellular ATP can function as an excitatory neurotransmitter as well as a trophic factor. These short-term and long-term actions are mediated by nucleotide receptors. Extracellular ATP can also act as a co-mitogen in conjunction with polypeptide growth factors such as basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2). Cellular proliferation,(More)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major risk factor for the subsequent development of epilepsy. Currently, chronic seizures after brain injury are often poorly controlled by available antiepileptic drugs. Hypothermia treatment, a modest reduction in brain temperature, reduces inflammation, activates pro-survival signaling pathways, and improves cognitive(More)