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Acute stress impairs memory retrieval and facilitates the induction of long-term depression (LTD) in the hippocampal CA1 region of the adult rodent brain. However, whether such alterations in synaptic plasticity cause the behavioral effects of stress is not known. Here, we report that two selective inhibitors of the induction or expression of(More)
The extent of conservation in the programmed cell death pathways that are activated in species belonging to different kingdoms is not clear. Caspases are key components of animal apoptosis; caspase activities are detected in both animal and plant cells. Yet, while animals have caspase genes, plants do not have orthologous sequences in their genomes. It is(More)
Rare variants in MDGAs (MAM domain-containing glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchors), including multiple protein-truncating deletions, are linked to autism and schizophrenia, but the function of these genes is poorly understood. Here, we show that MDGA1 and MDGA2 bound to neuroligin-2 inhibitory synapse-organizing protein, also implicated in(More)
Although NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) of glutamatergic transmission are candidate mechanisms for long-term spatial memory, the precise contributions of LTP and LTD remain poorly understood. Here, we report that LTP and LTD in the hippocampal CA1 region of freely moving adult rats were prevented(More)
Based on previously published hydroponic plant, planktonic bacterial, and soil microbial community research, manufactured nanomaterial (MNM) environmental buildup could profoundly alter soil-based food crop quality and yield. However, thus far, no single study has at once examined the full implications, as no studies have involved growing plants to full(More)
The heterochromatin-associated nonhistone chromosomal protein HP1 exerts dosage-dependent effects on the silencing of genes juxtaposed to pericentric heterochromatin in Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we report that HP1 is multiply phosphorylated in Drosophila tissue, predominantly at serine and threonine residues. Pulse-labeling studies of explanted(More)
Contemporary environmental disturbances and historical contingencies are considered to be major factors driving current differences in microbial diversity. However, little was known about their relative importance. This study combines culture-independent molecular techniques and advanced statistical analyses to examine quantitatively the relative importance(More)
Massage-like stroking induces acute antinociceptive effects that can be reversed by an oxytocin antagonist, indicating activation of oxytocin on endogenous pain controlling systems. We now demonstrate an increase in hindpaw withdrawal latencies (HWLs), in response to thermal and mechanical stimuli, which was present after six treatments of massage-like(More)
Increased use of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) raises concerns about their environmental impacts, but the effects of metal oxide ENPs on environmental processes and the organisms that carry them out remain largely unknown. This study evaluated the impacts of TiO2 and ZnO ENPs on soil bacterial communities. Soils collected from a California grassland were(More)
Stimulated exocytosis and endocytosis of post-synaptic alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid subtype of glutamate receptors (AMPARs) have been proposed as primary mechanisms for the expression of hippocampal CA1 long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD), respectively. LTP and LTD, the two most well characterized forms of(More)