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Rare variants in MDGAs (MAM domain-containing glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchors), including multiple protein-truncating deletions, are linked to autism and schizophrenia, but the function of these genes is poorly understood. Here, we show that MDGA1 and MDGA2 bound to neuroligin-2 inhibitory synapse-organizing protein, also implicated in(More)
Based on previously published hydroponic plant, planktonic bacterial, and soil microbial community research, manufactured nanomaterial (MNM) environmental buildup could profoundly alter soil-based food crop quality and yield. However, thus far, no single study has at once examined the full implications, as no studies have involved growing plants to full(More)
Acute stress impairs memory retrieval and facilitates the induction of long-term depression (LTD) in the hippocampal CA1 region of the adult rodent brain. However, whether such alterations in synaptic plasticity cause the behavioral effects of stress is not known. Here, we report that two selective inhibitors of the induction or expression of(More)
Contemporary environmental disturbances and historical contingencies are considered to be major factors driving current differences in microbial diversity. However, little was known about their relative importance. This study combines culture-independent molecular techniques and advanced statistical analyses to examine quantitatively the relative importance(More)
The extent of conservation in the programmed cell death pathways that are activated in species belonging to different kingdoms is not clear. Caspases are key components of animal apoptosis; caspase activities are detected in both animal and plant cells. Yet, while animals have caspase genes, plants do not have orthologous sequences in their genomes. It is(More)
The heterochromatin-associated nonhistone chromosomal protein HP1 exerts dosage-dependent effects on the silencing of genes juxtaposed to pericentric heterochromatin in Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we report that HP1 is multiply phosphorylated in Drosophila tissue, predominantly at serine and threonine residues. Pulse-labeling studies of explanted(More)
Mutations in a synaptic organizing pathway contribute to autism. Autism-associated mutations in MDGA2 (MAM domain containing glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor 2) are thought to reduce excitatory/inhibitory transmission. However, we show that mutation of Mdga2 elevates excitatory transmission, and that MDGA2 blocks neuroligin-1 interaction with neurexins(More)
Neural stem cell (NSC) replacement therapy is considered a promising cell replacement therapy for various neurodegenerative diseases. However, the low rate of NSC survival and neurogenesis currently limits its clinical potential. Here, we examined if hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), one of the most well characterized forms of synaptic plasticity,(More)
The global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO₂) concentration is expected to increase continuously over the next century. However, little is known about the responses of soil bacterial communities to elevated CO₂ in terrestrial ecosystems. This study aimed to partition the relative influences of CO₂, nitrogen (N), and the spatial factor (different sampling(More)
Because soil is expected to be a major sink for engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) released to the environment, the effects of ENPs on soil processes and the organisms that carry them out should be understood. DNA-based fingerprinting analyses have shown that ENPs alter soil bacterial communities, but specific taxon changes remain unknown. We used bar-coded(More)