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Acute stress impairs memory retrieval and facilitates the induction of long-term depression (LTD) in the hippocampal CA1 region of the adult rodent brain. However, whether such alterations in synaptic plasticity cause the behavioral effects of stress is not known. Here, we report that two selective inhibitors of the induction or expression of(More)
The extent of conservation in the programmed cell death pathways that are activated in species belonging to different kingdoms is not clear. Caspases are key components of animal apoptosis; caspase activities are detected in both animal and plant cells. Yet, while animals have caspase genes, plants do not have orthologous sequences in their genomes. It is(More)
Stimulated exocytosis and endocytosis of post-synaptic alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid subtype of glutamate receptors (AMPARs) have been proposed as primary mechanisms for the expression of hippocampal CA1 long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD), respectively. LTP and LTD, the two most well characterized forms of(More)
Rare variants in MDGAs (MAM domain-containing glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchors), including multiple protein-truncating deletions, are linked to autism and schizophrenia, but the function of these genes is poorly understood. Here, we show that MDGA1 and MDGA2 bound to neuroligin-2 inhibitory synapse-organizing protein, also implicated in(More)
Neural stem cell (NSC) replacement therapy is considered a promising cell replacement therapy for various neurodegenerative diseases. However, the low rate of NSC survival and neurogenesis currently limits its clinical potential. Here, we examined if hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), one of the most well characterized forms of synaptic plasticity,(More)
Although NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) of glutamatergic transmission are candidate mechanisms for long-term spatial memory, the precise contributions of LTP and LTD remain poorly understood. Here, we report that LTP and LTD in the hippocampal CA1 region of freely moving adult rats were prevented(More)
Intra-periaqueductal grey (PAG) injection of 1 nmol of oxytocin induced significant increases in hindpaw withdrawal latency (HWL) to thermal and mechanical stimulation in rats. The anti-nociceptive effect of oxytocin was attenuated significantly by subsequent intra-PAG injection of the mu opioid antagonist beta-funaltrexamine (beta-FNA) and the kappa opioid(More)
Bar-coded pyrosequencing has been increasingly used due to its fine taxonomic resolution and high throughput. Yet, concerns arise regarding the reproducibility of bar-coded pyrosequencing. We evaluated the run-to-run variation of bar-coded pyrosequencing in detecting bacterial community shifts and taxa dynamics. Our results demonstrate that pyrosequencing(More)
BACKGROUND Phytoextraction is an environmentally acceptable and inexpensive technique for mine tailing rehabilitation that uses metallophyte plants. These plants reduce the soil trace metal contents to environmentally acceptable levels by accumulating trace metals. Recently, whether more trace metals can be removed by species-rich communities of these(More)