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Leptin can exert its potent appetite-suppressing effects via activation of hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons. It depolarizes POMC neurons via activation of a yet unidentified nonselective cation current. Therefore, we sought to identify the conductance activated by leptin using whole-cell recording in EGFP-POMC neurons from transgenic mice.(More)
The human dopamine D4 receptor (D4R) has received considerable attention because of its high affinity for the atypical antipsychotic clozapine and the unusually polymorphic nature of its gene. To clarify the in vivo role of the D4R, we produced and analyzed mutant mice (D4R-/-) lacking this protein. Although less active in open field tests, D4R-/- mice(More)
Specialized secretion systems are used by numerous bacterial pathogens to export virulence factors into host target cells. Leishmania and other eukaryotic intracellular pathogens also deliver effector proteins into host cells; however, the mechanisms involved have remained elusive. In this report, we identify exosome-based secretion as a general mechanism(More)
During staphylococcal growth in glucose-supplemented medium, the pH of a culture starting near neutrality typically decreases by about 2 units due to the fermentation of glucose. Many species can comfortably tolerate the resulting mildly acidic conditions (pH, approximately 5.5) by mounting a cellular response, which serves to defend the intracellular pH(More)
BACKGROUND Patients with obstructive jaundice have various pathophysiological changes that affect the liver, kidney, heart, and the immune system. There is considerable controversy as to whether temporary relief of biliary obstruction prior to major definitive surgery (pre-operative biliary drainage) is of any benefit to the patient. OBJECTIVES To assess(More)
It is not understood how immune inflammation influences the pathogenesis of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). One area of strong controversy is the role of interferon (IFN) responses in the natural history of SARS. The fact that the majority of SARS patients recover after relatively moderate illness suggests that the prevailing notion of deficient(More)
We show that a targetron based on the Lactococcus lactis Ll.LtrB group II intron can be used for efficient chromosomal gene disruption in the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. Targetrons expressed from derivatives of vector pCN37, which uses a cadmium-inducible promoter, or pCN39, a derivative of pCN37 with a temperature-sensitive replicon, gave(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE A large number of traditional Chinese patent medicine (TCPM) are widely used for ischemic stroke in China. The aim of this study was to systematically review the existing clinical evidence on TCPM for ischemic stroke. METHODS We identified all TCPM that were listed in the Chinese National Essential Drug list of 2004 and those(More)
Immune responses during infection with pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza A virus (2009-H1N1) are still poorly understood. Using an experimental infection model in ferrets, we examined the pathological features and characterized the host immune responses by using microarray analysis, during infection with 2009-H1N1 A/California/07/2009 and seasonal(More)
Salmonella enterica is a bacterial pathogen that causes gastroenteritis and typhoid fever. Virulence is achieved by two type III secretion systems that translocate effector proteins into host cells, where they mimic or block host protein function. Effectors translocated into host cells by the first type III secretion system facilitate invasion and stimulate(More)