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Syntax-based statistical machine translation (MT) aims at applying statistical models to structured data. In this paper, we present a syntax-based statistical machine translation system based on a probabilistic synchronous dependency insertion grammar. Synchronous dependency insertion grammars are a version of synchronous grammars defined on dependency(More)
The known breast cancer susceptibility polymorphisms in FGFR2, TNRC9/TOX3, MAP3K1, LSP1, and 2q35 confer increased risks of breast cancer for BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. We evaluated the associations of 3 additional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs4973768 in SLC4A7/NEK10, rs6504950 in STXBP4/COX11, and rs10941679 at 5p12, and reanalyzed the(More)
Genome-wide association studies of breast cancer have identified multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with increased breast cancer risks in the general population. In a previous study, we demonstrated that the minor alleles at three of these SNPs, in FGFR2, TNRC9 and MAP3K1, also confer increased risks of breast cancer for(More)
YouTube uploaders are the central agents in the YouTube phenomenon. We conduct extensive measurement and analysis of YouTube uploaders. We estimate YouTube scale and examine the uploading behavior of YouTube users. We demonstrate the positive reinforcement between on-line social behavior and uploading behavior. Furthermore, we examine whether YouTube users(More)
Mitochondria play important roles in cellular energy production, free radical generation, and apoptosis. In a previous report, the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) G10398A (Thr-->Ala) polymorphism was associated with breast cancer risk in African-American women [Cancer Res 2005;65:8028-33]. We sought to replicate the association by genotyping the G10398A(More)
Mutations in the BRCA1 gene substantially increase a woman's lifetime risk of breast cancer. However, there is great variation in this increase in risk with several genetic and non-genetic modifiers identified. The BRCA1 protein plays a central role in DNA repair, a mechanism that is particularly instrumental in safeguarding cells against tumorigenesis. We(More)
Male breast cancer (MBC) is an uncommon disease with a frequency of approximately one in 1000. Due to the rarity of MBC, it is understudied and its etiology is poorly understood. Our objectives are to determine the frequency of pathogenic mutations in BRCA2 and PALB2 in MBC cases and to investigate the correlations between mutation status and cancer(More)
Previous studies have demonstrated that common breast cancer susceptibility alleles are differentially associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutation carriers. It is currently unknown how these alleles are associated with different breast cancer subtypes in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers defined by estrogen (ER) or progesterone(More)
IMPORTANCE Limited information about the relationship between specific mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) and cancer risk exists. OBJECTIVE To identify mutation-specific cancer risks for carriers of BRCA1/2. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Observational study of women who were ascertained between 1937 and 2011 (median, 1999) and found to carry(More)
OBJECTIVE Glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA1) is a rare neurometabolic disorder caused by glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency due to GCDH gene mutations. In this study, the clinical presentation and molecular aspects of 23 Chinese patients (11 males and 12 females) were investigated. METHODS All patients were diagnosed by elevated urinary glutaric acid and(More)