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Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive lung tumor subtype with poor prognosis. We sequenced 29 SCLC exomes, 2 genomes and 15 transcriptomes and found an extremely high mutation rate of 7.4±1 protein-changing mutations per million base pairs. Therefore, we conducted integrated analyses of the various data sets to identify pathogenetically relevant(More)
Health and environmental impacts of graphene-based materials need to be thoroughly evaluated before their potential applications. Graphene has strong cytotoxicity toward bacteria. To better understand its antimicrobial mechanism, we compared the antibacterial activity of four types of graphene-based materials (graphite (Gt), graphite oxide (GtO), graphene(More)
To further our understanding on the antibacterial activity of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), high purity SWCNTs with average diameter of 0.83 nm and (7,5) chirality as dominate (n,m) structure were dispersed in a biocompatible surfactant solution. Ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared radiation absorption spectroscopy was employed to monitor the(More)
We have sequenced the genomes of 110 small cell lung cancers (SCLC), one of the deadliest human cancers. In nearly all the tumours analysed we found bi-allelic inactivation of TP53 and RB1, sometimes by complex genomic rearrangements. Two tumours with wild-type RB1 had evidence of chromothripsis leading to overexpression of cyclin D1 (encoded by the CCND1(More)
The programmed cell death 4 gene (PDCD4), a newly identified transformation suppressor, was analysed in lung tumour cell lines and primary lung carcinomas. Reduced PDCD4 mRNA expression was observed in two immortalized lung cell lines and 18 cancer cell lines by northern blot analysis. In the survey of primary lung tumours, PDCD4 cDNA was poorly represented(More)
Reaction phenotyping using recombinant human cytochromes P450 (P450) has great utility in early discovery. However, to fully realize the advantages of using recombinant expressed P450s, the extrapolation of data from recombinant systems to human liver microsomes (HLM) is required. In this study, intersystem extrapolation factors (ISEFs) were established for(More)
Prospective simulations of human pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters and plasma concentration-time curves using in vitro in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) and physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models are becoming a vital part of the drug discovery and development process. This paper presents a strategy to deliver prospective simulations in support of(More)
Graphene oxide (GO) is a promising precursor to produce graphene-family nanomaterials for various applications. Their potential health and environmental impacts need a good understanding of their cellular interactions. Many factors may influence their biological interactions with cells, and the lateral dimension of GO sheets is one of the most relevant(More)
BACKGROUND To characterize the treatment and outcome of patients with cervical and upper thoracic esophageal cancer, the authors retrospectively reviewed the 11-year experience from The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. METHODS Thirty-five patients with M0 cervical or upper thoracic esophageal cancer and treated with concurrent(More)
EGFR mutation testing in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a novel and important molecular pathological diagnostic assay that is predictive of response to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapy. A comprehensive compilation of a large number of EGFR mutation analyses of the German Panel for Mutation Analyses in NSCLC demonstrates (a) a(More)