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Mitochondrial dysfunction is observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain, and the amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptide is known to induce mitochondrial dysfunction. The relative degree of mitochondrial dysfunction in different regions of the brain in AD is not completely understood. Moreover, the relationship between levels of synaptic mitochondrial Abeta and(More)
The actions of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) produced by resident brain cells and bone marrow-derived cells in brain following a transient global ischemia were evaluated. In wild-type mice (C57Bl/6J) following 20 min ischemia with bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAo), TNF-alpha mRNA expression levels in the hippocampus were(More)
There is convincing evidence that cytokines are involved in the inflammatory response following cerebral ischemia, but the interactions among the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-6 in the early stage of ischemic reperfusion are not yet completely understood. In this study, we examined the early mRNA(More)
Converging lines of evidence indicate dysregulation of the key immunoregulatory molecule CD45 (also known as leukocyte common antigen) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We report that transgenic mice overproducing amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) but deficient in CD45 (PSAPP/CD45(-/-) mice) faithfully recapitulate AD neuropathology. Specifically, we find increased(More)
Extracellular plaques of beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptides are implicated in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) pathogenesis. Abeta formation is precluded by alpha-secretase, which cleaves within the Abeta domain of APP generating soluble APP-alpha (sAPP-alpha). Thus, alpha-secretase upregulation may be a target AD therapy. We previously showed green tea derived EGCG(More)
Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is the most common age-related dementia, with a current prevalence in excess of five million individuals in the United States. The aggregation of amyloid-beta (A beta) into fibrillar amyloid plaques is a key pathological event in the development of the disease. Microglial proinflammatory activation is widely known to cause neuronal(More)
Mutations in the presenilin-1 (PS1) gene are independent causes of familial Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD patients have dysregulated immunity, and PS1 mutant mice exhibit abnormal systemic immune responses. To test whether immune function abnormality caused by a mutant human PS1 gene (mhPS1) could modify AD-like pathology, we reconstituted immune systems of(More)
Aluminum-induced neuronal injury has been implicated in various neurodegenerative disorders. However, the underlying mechanism involved in this pathogenesis still remains unknown. Our present findings demonstrated that chronic aluminum exposure resulted in spatial learning impairment and significantly increased intracellular calcium level in the hippocampus(More)
Caspase recruitment domain and membrane-associated guanylate kinase-like domain protein 3 (CARMA3) was reported as an oncoprotein overexpressed in several cancers. The expression pattern of CARMA3 and its clinical significance in human bladder cancer have not been well characterized. In the present study, CARMA3 expression was analyzed in 90 archived(More)
BACKGROUND Microglial activation, characterized by p38 MAPK or p44/42 MAPK pathway signal transduction, occurs in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our previous studies demonstrated CD45, a membrane-bound protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP), opposed beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptide-induced microglial activation via inhibition of p44/42 MAPK. Additionally we have shown(More)