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Adequate cochlear blood supply by the spiral modiolar artery (SMA) is critical for normal hearing. ACh may play a role in neuroregulation of the SMA but several key issues including its membrane action mechanisms remain poorly understood. Besides its well-known endothelium-dependent hyperpolarizing action, ACh can induce a depolarization in vascular cells.(More)
Acetylcholine (ACh) induces hyperpolarization and dilation in a variety of blood vessels, including the cochlear spiral modiolar artery (SMA) via the endothelium-derived hyperpolarization factor (EDHF). We demonstrated previously that the ACh-induced hyperpolarization in the SMA originated in the endothelial cells (ECs) by activating a Ca(2+)-activated K(+)(More)
2-Aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) analogs are potentially better vascular gap junction blockers than others widely used, but they remain to be characterized. Using whole cell and intracellular recording techniques, we studied the actions of 2-APB and its potent analog diphenylborinic anhydride (DPBA) on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and(More)
Loop diuretics such as bumetanide and furosemide enhance aminoglycoside ototoxicity when co-administered to patients and animal models. The underlying mechanism(s) is poorly understood. We investigated the effect of these diuretics on cellular uptake of aminoglycosides, using Texas Red-tagged gentamicin (GTTR), and intracellular/whole-cell recordings of(More)
In this paper, we construct a d z-disjunct matrix with the orthogonal spaces over finite fields of odd characteristic. We consider the arrangement problem of d (m − 1, 2(s − 1), s − 1)-subspaces and the tighter bounds for an error-tolerant pooling design. Moreover, we give the tighter analysis of our construction by the results of the arrangement problem.(More)
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