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Synaptic loss is the cardinal feature linking neuropathology to cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanism of synaptic damage remains incompletely understood. Here, using FRET-based glutamate sensor imaging, we show that amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) engages α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors to induce release of astrocytic glutamate,(More)
INTRODUCTION The natural product tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) has a variety of biologic activities, including neuroprotection. Nitrones are powerful free radical scavengers. We have designed and synthesized a TMP derivative, TN-2, which is armed with two nitrone moieties. AIMS In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of TN-2 against(More)
Endothelial dysfunction is involved in the pathogenesis of many cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have been considered to be of great significance in therapeutic angiogenesis. Furthermore, the Forkhead box O (FOXO) transcription factors are known to be important regulators of cell cycle. Therefore, we(More)
Mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis plays an important role in the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetra- hydropyridine (MPTP), the most widely used neurotoxin to simulate PD, is converted to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) in vivo. MPP+ induces excessive intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS),(More)
Polyethylenimine (PEI), especially PEI 25 kDa, has been widely studied for delivery of nucleic acid drugs both in vitro and in vivo. However, it lacks degradable linkages and is too toxic for therapeutic applications. Hence, low-molecular-weight PEI has been explored as an alternative to PEI 25 kDa. To reduce cytotoxicity and increase transfection(More)
Indirubin-3-oxime (I3O), a synthetic derivative of indirubin, was originally designed as potent inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) for leukemia therapy. In the current study, we have shown, for the first time, that I3O prevented 6-hydroxydopamine (6OHDA)-induced neuronal apoptosis and intracellular reactive(More)
Stroke and vascular dementia are leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Neuroprotective therapies have been proposed but none have proven clinically tolerated and effective. While overstimulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs) is thought to contribute to cerebrovascular insults, the importance of NMDARs in physiological(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. Although the etiology of PD is not completely understood, it is well-documented that oxidative stress and Ca(2+)-mediated cellular damage play important roles in the progression of PD. 2-[[(1,1-Dimethylethyl)oxidoimino]-methyl]-3,5,6-trimethylpyrazine (TBN), a novel nitrone(More)
BACKGROUND Sunitinib is an inhibitor of the multiple receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) for cancer therapy. Some sunitinib analogues could prevent neuronal death induced by various neurotoxins. However, the neuroprotective effects of sunitinib have not been reported. METHODS Cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) and SH-SY5Y cells were exposed to low-potassium(More)
BACKGROUND While all anti-diabetic agents can decrease blood glucose level directly or indirectly, few are able to protect and preserve both pancreatic beta cell mass and their insulin-secreting functions. Thus, there is an urgent need to find an agent or combination of agents that can lower blood glucose and preserve pancreatic beta cells at the same time.(More)