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Our previous work has shown that interleukin-6 (IL-6) implements its neuroprotective effect by inhibiting the intracellular Ca2+ overload in neurons. Here, we examined whether regulation of L-type calcium channels (LCCs) activities is involved in the neuroprotective action of IL-6. In cultured cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs), patch-clamp recording showed(More)
Neuroinflammation is associated with pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a progressive loss of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons within the substantia nigra. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 exerts anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties. However, it is unclear if microglia are required for TGF-β1(More)
We have previously shown that interleukin-6 (IL-6)-protected neurons against the suppression of neuronal vitality and overload of intracellular Ca(2+) induced by glutamate or N-methyl-D: -aspartate (NMDA). Herein we provide further evidence for IL-6 neuroprotection against NMDA-induced apoptosis and explore the signal-transduction mechanisms underlying the(More)
Cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) has been showed to be an important mediator of neuroimmune responses. However, effects of IL-6 in the central nervous system (CNS) are quite complex and diverse, and mechanisms through which IL-6 influences neuronal functions are primarily unknown. In the present study, we explored protective effect of IL-6 that was chronically(More)
Neuroinflammation has been reported to be associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Neuroinflammation is generally considered as an outcome of glial activation; however, we recently demonstrated that T helper (Th)17 cells, a subpopulation of proinflammatory CD4+ T cells, are also involved in AD pathogenesis. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1,(More)
Cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) has been well shown to be elevated in brain injury and diseases. However, the significance of IL-6 production in such neuropathologic states remains controversial, and the intracellular signal-transduction pathways involved in the brain IL-6 action are primarily unclear. We previously indicated that exogenous IL-6 protected(More)
We have previously shown that interleukin-6 (IL-6) has neuroprotective effect against N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-induced excitotoxicity. The current study aimed to reveal signal transduction pathways involved in the IL-6 neuroprotection. Cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) from postnatal 8-day infant rats were exposed to IL-6 (120 ng/ml) for 8 days and(More)
BACKGROUND The aim of the present study was to analyze the expression of Zinc finger E-box Binding homeobox 2 (ZEB2) in glioma and to explore the molecular mechanisms of ZEB2 that regulate cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and apoptosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Expression of ZEB2 in 90 clinicopathologically characterized glioma patients was(More)
Our previous work has shown that the cerebellar fastigial nucleus (FN) is involved in modulation of lymphocyte function. Herein, we investigated effect of FN γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic projections to the hypothalamus on lymphocytes to understand pathways and mechanisms underlying cerebellar immunomodulation. By injection of Texas red dextran amine(More)
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, a cytokine that can be expressed in the brain, is a key regulator of the brain's responses to injury and inflammation. Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common neurodegenerative disorder, involves inflammatory processes in the brain in addition to the hallmarks, amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles.(More)