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Mitochondrial morphology is dynamically controlled by a balance between fusion and fission. The physiological importance of mitochondrial fission in vertebrates is less clearly defined than that of mitochondrial fusion. Here we show that mice lacking the mitochondrial fission GTPase Drp1 have developmental abnormalities, particularly in the forebrain, and(More)
In order to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotype frequencies of CYP3A4 in a Japanese population, the distal enhancer and proximal promoter regions, all exons, and the surrounding introns were sequenced from genomic DNA of 416 Japanese subjects. We found 24 SNPs, including 17 novel ones: two in the distal enhancer, four in the(More)
Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is a synaptic modulator as well as a neuroprotectant in the brain. We recently showed that H(2)S protects neurons from oxidative stress by increasing the levels of glutathione (GSH), a major cellular antioxidant, by more than twice that of a control through enhancing the cystine transport. Here we show that H(2)S enhances the(More)
Mutations in mtDNA are responsible for a variety of mitochondrial diseases, where the mitochondrial tRNA(Leu(UUR)) gene has especially hot spots for pathogenic mutations. Clinical features often depend on the tRNA species and/or positions of the mutations; however, molecular pathogenesis elucidating the relation between the location of the mutations and(More)
We detected morphologic abnormalities in the cerebral cortex of Mecp2-hemizygous (Mecp2(-/y)) mice. The cortical thickness of both somatosensory and motor cortices in mutants did not increase after 4 weeks of age, as compared with that in wild-type male mice. The density of neurons in those areas was significantly higher in layers II/III and V of Mecp2(-/y)(More)
Here, we identified human myogenic progenitor cells coexpressing Pax7, a marker of muscle satellite cells and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, a marker of osteoblasts, in regenerating muscle. To determine whether human myogenic progenitor cells are able to act as osteoprogenitor cells, we cultured both primary and immortalized progenitor cells derived(More)
To clarify whether Mecp2 dysfunction may cause impairment of the monoaminergic and serotonergic systems, we measured the whole brain concentrations of biogenic amines and related substrates in three mecp2-null male mice and four control mice of each age at 0-42 postnatal days by HPLC methods. After 14 postnatal days, concentrations of biogenic amines were(More)
Mice carrying mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) with pathogenic mutations would provide a system in which to study how mutant mtDNAs are transmitted and distributed in tissues, resulting in expression of mitochondrial diseases. However, no effective procedures are available for the generation of these mice. Isolation of mouse cells without mtDNA (ρ0) enabled us to(More)
Distal myopathy with rimmed vacuoles is an autosomal recessive muscle disease with preferential involvement of the tibialis anterior that spares the quadriceps muscles in young adulthood. In a Japanese patient with distal myopathy with rimmed vacuoles, we identified pathogenic mutations in the gene encoding the bifunctional enzyme UDP-GlcNAc(More)
In order to identify genetic polymorphisms and haplotype frequencies of CYP1A2 in a Japanese population, the enhancer and promoter regions, all the exons with their surrounding introns, and intron 1 were sequenced from genomic DNA from 250 Japanese subjects. Thirty-three polymorphisms were found, including 13 novel ones: 2 in the enhancer region, 5 in the(More)