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Tuberous sclerosis is a single-gene disorder caused by heterozygous mutations in the TSC1 (9q34) or TSC2 (16p13.3) gene and is frequently associated with mental retardation, autism and epilepsy. Even individuals with tuberous sclerosis and a normal intelligence quotient (approximately 50%) are commonly affected with specific neuropsychological problems,(More)
The mechanisms that determine how information is allocated to specific regions and cells in the brain are important for memory capacity, storage and retrieval, but are poorly understood. We manipulated CREB in a subset of lateral amygdala neurons in mice with a modified herpes simplex virus (HSV) and reversibly inactivated transfected neurons with the(More)
Dnmt1 and Dnmt3a are important DNA methyltransferases that are expressed in postmitotic neurons, but their function in the CNS is unclear. We generated conditional mutant mice that lack Dnmt1, Dnmt3a or both exclusively in forebrain excitatory neurons and found that only double knockout (DKO) mice showed abnormal long-term plasticity in the hippocampal CA1(More)
The induction of pluripotency or trans-differentiation of one cell type to another can be accomplished with cell-lineage-specific transcription factors. Here, we report that repression of a single RNA binding polypyrimidine-tract-binding (PTB) protein, which occurs during normal brain development via the action of miR-124, is sufficient to induce(More)
We recorded neurons from the hippocampus of freely behaving rats during an auditory fear conditioning task. Rats received either paired or unpaired presentations of an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS) and an electric shock unconditioned stimulus (US). Hippocampal neurons (place and theta cells) acquired responses to the auditory CS in the paired but not(More)
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) accounts for 10-15% of all strokes and is associated with high mortality and morbidity. Currently, no effective medical treatment is available to improve functional outcomes in patients with ICH. Potential therapies targeting secondary brain injury are arousing a great deal of interest in translational studies. Increasing(More)
Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) was initially discovered through a balanced translocation (1;11)(q42.1;q14.3) that results in loss of the C terminus of the DISC1 protein, a region that is thought to play an important role in brain development. Here, we use an inducible and reversible transgenic system to demonstrate that early postnatal, but not adult(More)
Memory is essential for our normal daily lives and our sense of self. Ca(2+) influx through the NMDA-type glutamate receptor (NMDAR) and the ensuing activation of the Ca(2+) and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII) are required for memory formation and its physiological correlate, long-term potentiation (LTP). The Ca(2+) influx induces CaMKII(More)
C-arm fluoroscopy is ubiquitous in contemporary surgery, but it lacks the ability to accurately reconstruct three-dimensional (3D) information. A major obstacle in fluoroscopic reconstruction is discerning the pose of the x-ray image, in 3D space. Optical/magnetic trackers tend to be prohibitively expensive, intrusive and cumbersome in many applications. We(More)