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In this paper, the effects of refuges used by prey on a predator-prey interaction with a class of functional responses are studied by using the analytical approach. The refuges are considered as two types: a constant proportion of prey and a fixed number of prey using refuges. We will evaluate the effects with regard to the local stability of the interior(More)
The pre-Bötzinger complex (pre-BötC) in the ventrolateral medulla oblongata is critical for the generation of respiratory rhythm in mammals. Somatostatin (SST) and neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) immunoreactivity have been used as markers of the pre-BötC. SST immunoreactivity almost completely overlaps with small fusiform NK1R-immunoreactive (ir) neurons, the(More)
The inhibitory co-receptor programmed death 1 (PD-1, encoded by pdcd1) and its two ligands PD-L1 and PD-L2 comprise an important immune inhibitory signaling pathway for defense against microbes and for self-tolerance. Unlike other members of the B7-CD28 family, expression of PD-L1 and PD-L2 is not limited to the immune system. In this study, we determined(More)
Deer antlers are the only mammalian appendages capable of repeated rounds of regeneration. Every year, deer antlers are shed and regrown from blastema into large branched structures of cartilage and bone. Little is known about the genes involved in antler development particularly during the later stages of ossification. We have produced more than 39 million(More)
Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), a CC chemokine (CCL2), has been demonstrated to play important roles in atherosclerosis and becoming an important therapeutic target for atherosclerosis. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that local RNAi of MCP-1 by site-specific delivery of adenovirus-mediated small hairpin RNA (shRNA) may(More)
Active inflammation is an important feature of vulnerable plaques, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a key chemokine that promotes monocyte-endothelium binding and initiates inflammation. We aimed to determine whether dominant-negative mutation of MCP-1 could reverse atherosclerotic lesion progression and prevent vulnerable plaques from(More)
Deer antlers are well known for their regeneration and rapid growth. However, little is known about the genes that are involved in their development, especially the molecular mechanisms responsible for rapid growth. In the present study, we produced more than 41 million sequencing reads using the Illumina sequencing platform. These reads were assembled into(More)
Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) has become a widely used method for gene expression analysis; however, its data interpretation largely depends on the stability of reference genes. The transcriptomics of Panax ginseng, one of the most popular and traditional ingredients used in Chinese medicines, is increasingly being studied.(More)