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In the mature nervous system, changes in synaptic strength correlate with changes in neuronal structure. Members of the Nogo-66 receptor family have been implicated in regulating neuronal morphology. Nogo-66 receptor 1 (NgR1) supports binding of the myelin inhibitors Nogo-A, MAG (myelin-associated glycoprotein), and OMgp (oligodendrocyte myelin(More)
During transcription initiation, RNA polymerase (RNAP) binds and unwinds promoter DNA to form an RNAP-promoter open complex. We have determined crystal structures at 2.9 and 3.0 Å resolution of functional transcription initiation complexes comprising Thermus thermophilus RNA polymerase, σ(A), and a promoter DNA fragment corresponding to the transcription(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of gene regulators originating from non-coding endogenous RNAs. Altered expression, both up- and down-regulation, of miRNAs plays important roles in many human diseases. Correcting miRNA dysregulation by either inhibiting or restoring miRNA function may provide therapeutic benefit. However, efficient, nontoxic miRNA delivery(More)
Regional structural and functional variations in the posteromedial cortex (PMC) have been found in both animals and humans, strongly suggesting the presence of subdivisions. However, there is no consensus on how to subdivide the human PMC. Here, we investigated the anatomical parcellation scheme and the connectivity pattern of each subdivision of the human(More)
Leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs) comprise the largest group within the receptor-like kinase (RLK) superfamily in plants. This gene family plays critical and diverse roles in plant growth, development and stress response. Although the LRR-RLK families in Arabidopsis and rice have been previously analyzed, no comprehensive studies have(More)
All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has been widely investigated for treatments of many cancers including prostate cancer. HOXB13, silenced in androgen receptor-negative (AR(-)) prostate cancer cells, plays a role in AR(-) prostate cancer cell growth arrest. In this study we intended to elucidate the mechanisms that are involved in the proliferation inhibition(More)
Mutations in ATP1A3 cause Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood (AHC) by disrupting function of the neuronal Na+/K+ ATPase. Published studies to date indicate 2 recurrent mutations, D801N and E815K, and a more severe phenotype in the E815K cohort. We performed mutation analysis and retrospective genotype-phenotype correlations in all eligible patients with(More)
Unraveling the mechanisms by which the molecular manipulation of genes of interest enhances cognitive function is important to establish genetic therapies for cognitive disorders. Although CREB is thought to positively regulate formation of long-term memory (LTM), gain-of-function effects of CREB remain poorly understood, especially at the behavioral level.(More)
The anticonvulsant drug lamotrigine has been shown to produce antidepressant effects in patients with bipolar disorder. To date, only a few preclinical studies have been conducted using lamotrigine treatment in the forced swim test (FST), an animal model of depression with low face validity. The underlying mechanisms by which lamotrigine works have not been(More)
BACKGROUND Memory consolidation is a process to stabilize short-term memory, generating long-term memory. A critical biochemical feature of memory consolidation is a requirement for gene expression. Previous studies have shown that fear memories are consolidated through the activation of gene expression in the amygdala and hippocampus, indicating essential(More)