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Alzheimer disease (AD) is an age-dependent neurodegenerative disease characterized by the formation of β-amyloid (Aβ)-containing senile plaque. The disease could be induced by the administration of Aβ peptide, which was also known to upregulate inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and stimulate neuronal apoptosis. The present study is aimed to elucidate(More)
Recent results show that brain glucocorticoids are involved in the dysregulation of fear memory extinction in post-traumatic stress disorder patients. The present study was aimed to elucidate the possible mechanism of glucocorticoids on the conditioned fear extinction. To achieve these goals, male SD rats, fear-potentiated startle paradigm, and Western blot(More)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the most prevalent causes of morbidity and mortality in youth. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) has many roles in the brain in addition to mediating glial inflammatory response; it has also been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. We demonstrated the signal transduction pathway of IL-1 overproduction-induced cortical neuron(More)
The present study was aimed to elucidate the possible role of Na+ -K+ -2Cl- -cotransporter (NKCC1) on traumatic brain injury-induced brain edema, cerebral contusion and neuronal death by using traumatic brain injury animal model. Contusion volume was verified by 2,3,5,-triphenyltetrazolium chloride monohydrate staining. NKCC1 mRNA expression was detected by(More)
Nogo-A is a member of the reticulon family of membrane-associated proteins and plays an important role in axonal remodeling. The present study aimed to investigate alterations in Nogo-A expression following traumatic brain injury (TBI)-induced inflammation and neuronal damage. A weight-drop device was used to deliver a standard traumatic impact to rats.(More)
RATIONALE Ginkgo biloba extract, EGb761, is one of the most commonly used herbal supplements throughout Western society. It has been used in the treatment of various common geriatric complaints including short-term memory loss. We showed that acute systemic administration of EGb761 enhanced fear-potentiated startle (FPS) in rats. Little is known about the(More)
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