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Long-term ecological effects of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops on nontarget pests have received limited attention, more so in diverse small holder-based cropping systems of the developing world. Field trials conducted over 10 years in northern China show that mirid bugs (Heteroptera: Miridae) have progressively increased population sizes and(More)
Insect chemosensory proteins (CSPs) have been proposed to capture and transport hydrophobic chemicals from air to olfactory receptors in the lymph of antennal chemosensilla. They may represent a new class of soluble carrier protein involved in insect chemoreception. However, their specific functional roles in insect chemoreception have not been fully(More)
Over the past 16 years, vast plantings of transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have helped to control several major insect pests and reduce the need for insecticide sprays. Because broad-spectrum insecticides kill arthropod natural enemies that provide biological control of pests, the decrease in(More)
Insects use their sensitive and selective olfactory system to detect outside chemical odorants, such as female sex pheromones and host plant volatiles. Several groups of olfactory proteins participate in the odorant detection process, including odorant binding proteins (OBPs), chemosensory proteins (CSPs), odorant receptors (ORs), ionotropic receptors (IRs)(More)
Antennal olfaction is extremely important for insect survival, mediating key behaviors such as host preference, mate choice, and oviposition site selection. Multiple antennal proteins are involved in olfactory signal transduction pathways. Of these, odorant receptors (ORs) and ionotropic receptors (IRs) confer specificity on olfactory sensory neuron(More)
Odorant receptors are thought to play critical roles in the perception of chemosensory stimuli by insects. The primary method to address the functions of odorant receptors in insects is to use in vitro binding assays between the receptors and potential chemical stimuli. We injected MmedOrco dsRNA into the abdominal cavity of a braconid wasp, Microplitis(More)
One of the challenges in insect chemical ecology is to understand how insect pheromones are synthesised, detected and degraded. Genome wide survey by comparative sequencing and gene specific expression profiling provide rich resources for this challenge. A. ipsilon is a destructive pest of many crops and further characterization of the genes involved in(More)
Insect pheromone binding proteins (PBPs) are believed to solubilize and transport hydrophobic sex pheromones across sensillum lymph to membrane-associated pheromone receptors. To address the molecular mechanisms of PBPs in insect pheromone perception, we undertook a systemic study on the PBPs of the black cutworm Agrotis ipsilon at transcript as well as(More)
To delay evolution of pest resistance to transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), the "pyramid" strategy uses plants that produce two or more toxins that kill the same pest. We conducted laboratory diet experiments with the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, to evaluate cross-resistance and interactions between(More)
The insect sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs) SNMP1 and SNMP2 are transmembrane domain-containing proteins and are homologs of the vertebrate CD36 transmembrane proteins. It has been suggested that SNMPs play a significant role in insect chemoreception. Previous studies have demonstrated that SNMP1 is expressed in the pheromone-sensitive olfactory(More)