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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in the oxidative damage of the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. caused by UV-B (280-315 nm) radiation. UV-B-induced overproduction of ROS as well as the oxidative stress was detected in vivo by using the ROS-sensitive probe 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA). Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances(More)
Nonmelanoma skin cancer is the most common cancer in the United States, where DNA-damaging ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation from the sun remains the major environmental risk factor. However, the critical genetic targets of UVB radiation are undefined. Here we show that attenuating PTEN in epidermal keratinocytes is a predisposing factor for UVB-induced skin(More)
The increasing use of fullerene nanomaterials has prompted widespread concern over their biological effects. Herein, we have studied the phototoxicity of gamma-cyclodextrin bicapped pristine C 60 [(gamma-CyD) 2/C 60] and its water-soluble derivative C 60(OH) 24 toward human keratinocytes. Our results demonstrated that irradiation of (gamma-CyD) 2/C 60 or C(More)
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in the damage and response of cyanobacteria to UV-B irradiation. In cyanobacteria, there are several targets for the potentially toxic ROS such as lipids, DNA and protein. The damage to photosynthetic apparatus induces the inhibition of photosynthesis that is mediated partially by ROS. UV-B-induced oxidative stress(More)
We analysed and compared the functioning of UV-B screening pigments in plants from marine, fresh water and terrestrial ecosystems, along the evolutionary line of cyanobacteria, unicellular algae, primitive multicellular algae, charophycean algae, lichens, mosses and higher plants, including amphibious macrophytes. Lichens were also included in the study. We(More)
Disruption of the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway by mutations can cause xeroderma pigmentosum, a syndrome predisposing affected individuals to development of skin cancer. The xeroderma pigmentosum C (XPC) protein is essential for initiating global genome NER by recognizing the DNA lesion and recruiting downstream factors. Here we show that(More)
In this study we report the phototoxicity toward HaCaT keratinocytes that results from the photogeneration of superoxide and singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)) by four different "water-soluble" fullerene (C(60)) preparations-monomeric (gamma-CyD)(2)/C(60) (gamma-cyclodextrin bicapped C(60)) and three aggregated forms-THF/nC(60) (prepared by solvent exchange from THF(More)
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays a critical role in cell proliferation, differentiation, and transformation. EGFR downregulation attenuates its signaling intensity and duration to maintain cellular homeostasis. Here, we report that during apoptosis EGFR is cleaved by activated caspase-3 or related proteases at its C-terminus domain. EGFR(More)
Ultraviolet A (UVA, 315-400 nm), constituting about 95% of ultraviolet irradiation in natural sunlight, represents a major environmental challenge to the skin and is clearly associated with human skin cancer. It has proven difficult to show direct actions of UVA as a carcinogen in human cells. Here, we demonstrate that chronic UVA exposures at(More)
Cyanobacteria must cope with the negative effects of ultraviolet B (280-315 nm) (UV-B) stress caused by their obligatory light requirement for photosynthesis. The adaptation of the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. to moderate UV-B radiation has been observed after 2 weeks of irradiation, as indicated by decreased oxidative stress, decreased damage, recovered(More)