On April 21, 2008, four whooper swans were found dead at Lake Towada, Akita prefecture, Japan. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of the H5N1 subtype was isolated from specimens of the affected birds. The hemagglutinin (HA) gene of the isolate belongs to clade 2.3.2 in the HA phylogenetic tree.
We examined feathers of domestic ducks and geese inoculated with 2 different avian influenza virus (H5N1) genotypes. Together with virus isolation from the skin, the detection of viral antigens and ultrastructural observation of the virions in the feather epidermis raise the possibility of feathers as sources of infection.
To the Editor: Free-range domestic ducks can be a key factor in regional spreading of Asian subtype H5N1 avian infl uenza (AI) virus (1–3). Even asymptomatic domestic ducks can shed the virus continuously from the oral cavity and cloaca (3–5). Therefore, early detection of infected ducks that are shedding the virus would reduce the risk of spreading AI… (More)
The outbreak of Riemerella anatipestifer (RA) infection has been confirmed in meat-type domestic ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) for the first time in 27 years in Japan. In January 2014, increased mortality in a 14- to 21-day-old duck flock was reported to veterinary officials by the owner. The affected ducks exhibited reduced movement, ataxia and dorsal… (More)
A hemagglutinating virus (8KS0813) was isolated from a red-necked stint. Hemagglutination inhibition and neutralization tests indicated that 8KS0813 was antigenically related to a prototype strain, APMV-6/duck/Hong Kong/18/199/77, but with an 8- and 16-fold difference, respectively, in their titers. The full genome sequence of 8KS0813 showed 98.6 %… (More)
The pathogenicity of Newcastle disease (ND) virus, isolated from ND outbreak in vaccinated chickens, was evaluated through experiments. The pathogenicity indexes (mean death time (MDT); 58 hr, intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI); 1.7 and intravenous pathogenicity index (IVPI); 2.51) indicated that the ND virus was velogenic. The ND virus caused… (More)
<i>Objective</i>:Non-traumatic spinal epidural hematoma(SEH)is relatively rare. We report five cases of SEH, review the relevant literature, and discuss the current treatment strategies for non-traumatic SEH in Japan. <i>Methods</i>:Clinical data of cases with non-traumatic SEH treated at our institute from 2008 to 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. In… (More)
STUDY DESIGN The strength effects of a pedicle screw-rod system supplemented with a novel cross-link configuration were biomechanically evaluated in porcine spines. PURPOSE To assess the biomechanical differences between a conventional cross-link pedicle screw-rod system versus a novel cross-link instrumentation, and to determine the effect of the… (More)