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During physiological processes molecules undergo chemical changes involving reducing and oxidizing reactions. A molecule with an unpaired electron can combine with a molecule capable of donating an electron. The donation of an electron is termed as oxidation whereas the gaining of an electron is called reduction. Reduction and oxidation can render the(More)
We describe a model of acute intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation in the mouse eye that induces reversible loss of inner retinal function associated with oxidative stress, glial cell activation and minimal loss of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) number. Young healthy mouse eyes recover inner retinal function within 7-days but more persistent functional loss is(More)
PURPOSE To examine retinal function using the full-field electroretinogram (ERG) during and after acute intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation in wild-type mice. METHODS IOP was elevated by anterior chamber cannulation in wild-type C57/BL6 mice. The pressure-function relationship was determined by IOP elevation in steps from baseline to 80 mm Hg. The rate(More)
PURPOSE Following the recent demonstration of increased mitochondrial DNA mutations in lymphocytes of POAG patients, the authors sought to characterize mitochondrial function in a separate cohort of POAG. METHODS Using similar methodology to that previous applied to Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) patients, maximal adenosine triphosphate (ATP)(More)
Mouse models that accumulate high levels of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations owing to impairments in mitochondrial polymerase γ (PolG) proofreading function have been shown to develop phenotypes consistent with accelerated aging. As increase in mtDNA mutations and aging are risk factors for neurodegenerative diseases, we sought to determine whether(More)
Advancing age is a major risk factor for many neurodegenerative diseases but the underlying pathophysiology is not clear. We hypothesize that aging impairs the ability of neurons in the central nervous system to recover functionally after injury. To test this in retinal ganglion cells in vivo, we developed an optic nerve "stress test" which monitors the(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS To evaluate the association between demographical features, serum ALT and HBV DNA and the prevalence of significant fibrosis and inflammation on liver biopsy in patients with chronic hepatitis B. METHODS In this cross-sectional study of patients on St Vincent's Hospital HBV database, patients were classified into three groups on the basis(More)
PURPOSE The authors compared the visual gaze behaviors of glaucoma subspecialists with those of ophthalmology trainees during optic disc and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) examination. METHODS Seven glaucoma subspecialists and 23 ophthalmology trainees participated in the project. Participants were shown eight glaucomatous optic disc images with varied(More)
IMPORTANCE Glaucoma is a significant health problem for which diagnosis remains suboptimal. Optic disc evaluation, which is fundamental to the diagnosis, is a difficult skill to acquire. OBJECTIVES To determine the optic disc characteristics that most influence decision making in the assessment of glaucoma likelihood and to ascertain the optic disc(More)
BACKGROUND Development of a standardized internet-based system to self-assess skills in optic disc examination for glaucoma risk assessment. DESIGN Prospective internet-based observational study. PARTICIPANTS Total of 197 participants (glaucoma subspecialists, general ophthalmologists and trainees) from 22 countries. METHODS Forty-two optic disc(More)