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Shigella dysenteriae is the pathogen responsible for the severe form of dysentery in humans. It produces Shiga toxin, the prototype of a family of closely related bacterial protein toxins. We have determined the structure of the holotoxin, an AB5 hexamer, by X-ray crystallography. The five B subunits form a pentameric ring, encircling a helix at the carboxy(More)
Over 99% of the genome of Aedes densonucleosis virus was determined. Two types of the viral DNA were found that differ only in four nucleotides (nt) in the 5' noncoding part and whose sizes are 4009 nt (more copious) and 4012 nt, respectively. Both 146 nt at the 3' end and 164 nt at the 5' end could assume a similar T-shaped structure; but unlike the(More)
We have constructed an infectious DNA clone containing the genome of Aedes aegypti densovirus (AeDNV) in a bacterial plasmid. When this clone was transfected into Aedes albopictus C6/36 mosquito cells, the AeDNV genome rescued from the plasmid and replicated as the wild-type virus. To investigate the cloned virus as an expression vector, the reporter gene(More)
Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) RNA which was previously reported to contain poly(A) sequences (Agranovsky et al., 1978) can be specifically esterified with tyrosine in vitro in the presence of an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase fraction from wheat embryos. All the three RNA components of the BSMV strain with a three-component genome (Norwich) and both RNA(More)
Passaging through plants of the three-component barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) strain Norwich (Norwich III) yielded a two-component isolate (Norwich II). A study was made of the sets of polypeptides translated in a rabbit reticulocyte and wheat embryo cell-free systems from individual RNAs of (1) the natural three-component strain Norwich III, (2) a(More)
In all secreted proteins related to the epidermal growth factor (EGF), EGF domains that occur in a mature factor are each encoded by two exons, and those that do not, by one exon. During splicing, additional exon 3a can be inserted between exons 3 and 4, which code for the EGF domain of the mature heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF). The(More)
A new mRNA coding for the heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) was found in Vero cells. The corresponding cDNA had C-156 in place of T, which resulted in a loss of the NheI site and replacement of Leu-33 with Pro in the HB-EGF precursor. The known and new forms of the precursor were accordingly termed L and P. A conformational change in the(More)
The protein toxin produced by Shigella dysenteriae consists of one enzymatically active A subunit of 293 amino acid residues and five B subunits of 69 amino acid residues that are involved with cell attachment. The holotoxin has been purified by blue Sepharose and chromatofocusing column chromatography. Two crystal forms of purified holotoxin have been(More)
The effect of UV-irradiation on host and virus-specific RNA synthesis in cells infected or transformed by tumor viruses (Ad 5 and SV 40) was studied. It was found that the synthesis of host and Ad 5 RNA in infected KB cells was almost equally inhibited upon UV-irradiation; the transcription of the EcoRI produced fragments-fragment B was inhibited to a(More)
The structure of the green monkey Chlorocebus aethiops heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) gene was compared with that of the corresponding human gene. Exon 3a, characteristic of the short form of HB-EGF (SF-HB-EGF), was mapped between exons 3 and 4, approximately 700 bp away from the latter. In several human and simian cell lines, most of the(More)