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Proline accumulation is responsible for stress adaptation in many plants. To distinguish the involvement of two proline synthetic pathways, the virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) system that silenced the expression of genes encoding Δ(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS; EC:1.5.1.12) and ornithine-δ-aminotransferase (OAT; EC 2.6.1.13) was(More)
Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are widely applied in studies of plant molecular genetics due to their abundance in the genome, codominant nature, high repeatability, and transferability in cross-species applications. To investigate the possibility of applying rice SSR markers in bamboo, we selected 120 rice SSR markers that are evenly distributed on(More)
A better understanding of virus resistance mechanisms can offer more effective strategies to control virus diseases. Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), Potyviridae, causes severe economical losses in papaya and cucurbit production worldwide. However, no resistance gene against PRSV has been identified to date. This study aimed to identify candidate PRSV(More)
The genetic markers associated with economic traits have been widely explored for animal breeding. Among these markers, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) are gradually becoming a prevalent and effective evaluation tool. Since SNPs only focus on the genetic sequences of interest, it thereby reduces the evaluation time and cost. Compared to traditional(More)
The feature-rich electronic and magnetic properties of fluorine-doped graphene nanoribbons are investigated by the first-principles calculations. They arise from the cooperative or competitive relations among the significant chemical bonds, finite-size quantum confinement and edge structure. There exist C-C, C-F, and F-F bonds with multi-orbital(More)
The gas discharge and photo-luminance properties of a planar lighting source featuring highly uniform light emission and mercury-free design were studied. The current density-voltage characteristics and the associated gas discharge of the devices operating with the values of the ratio of electric field to gas pressure (E/p) between 4.3 kV/Torr-cm and 35.7(More)
The electronic properties of graphene oxides enriched by strong chemical bonding are investigated using first-principles calculations. They are very sensitive to the changes in the number of graphene layers, stacking configuration, and distribution of oxygen. The feature-rich electronic structures exhibit destruction or distortion of the Dirac cone, opening(More)
The generalized tight-binding model is developed to investigate the magneto-optical absorption spectra of ABC-stacked trilayer graphene. The absorption peaks can be classified into nine categories of inter-Landau-level optical excitations, including three intra-group and six inter-group ones. Most of them belong to the twin-peak structures because of the(More)
The geometric and electronic properties of passivated armchair graphene nanoribbons, enriched by strong chemical bonding between edge-carbons and various adatoms, are investigated by first-principle calculations. Adatom arrangements, bond lengths, charge distributions, and energy dispersions are dramatically changed by edge passivation. Elements with an(More)
Proteinase inhibitors are ubiquitous proteins that block the active center or interact allosterically with proteinases and are involved in plant physiological processes and defense responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The CmSPI gene identified from Cucumis metuliferus encodes a serine type PI (8 kDa) that belongs to potato I type family. To evaluate(More)