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Cellular senescence suppresses cancer by arresting cell proliferation, essentially permanently, in response to oncogenic stimuli, including genotoxic stress. We modified the use of antibody arrays to provide a quantitative assessment of factors secreted by senescent cells. We show that human cells induced to senesce by genotoxic stress secrete myriad(More)
Neural stem cells are reported to lie in a vascular niche, but there is no direct evidence for a functional relationship between the stem cells and blood vessel component cells. We show that endothelial cells but not vascular smooth muscle cells release soluble factors that stimulate the self-renewal of neural stem cells, inhibit their differentiation, and(More)
Brassinosteroid (BR) regulates gene expression and plant development through a receptor kinase-mediated signal transduction pathway. Despite the identification of many components of this pathway, it remains unclear how the BR signal is transduced from the cell surface to the nucleus. Here we describe a complete BR signalling pathway by elucidating key(More)
Brassinosteroids (BRs) bind to the extracellular domain of the receptor kinase BRI1 to activate a signal transduction cascade that regulates nuclear gene expression and plant development. Many components of the BR signaling pathway have been identified and studied in detail. However, the substrate of BRI1 kinase that transduces the signal to downstream(More)
Brassinosteroid (BR) homeostasis and signaling are crucial for normal growth and development of plants. BR signaling through cell-surface receptor kinases and intracellular components leads to dephosphorylation and accumulation of the nuclear protein BZR1. How BR signaling regulates gene expression, however, remains unknown. Here we show that BZR1 is a(More)
Brassinosteroids (BRs) regulate a wide range of developmental and physiological processes in plants through a receptor-kinase signaling pathway that controls the BZR transcription factors. Here, we use transcript profiling and chromatin-immunoprecipitation microarray (ChIP-chip) experiments to identify 953 BR-regulated BZR1 target (BRBT) genes. Functional(More)
Tandem 3' UTRs produced by alternative polyadenylation (APA) play an important role in gene expression by impacting mRNA stability, translation, and translocation in cells. Several studies have investigated APA site switching in various physiological states; nevertheless, they only focused on either the genes with two known APA sites or several candidate(More)
It has been debated whether asymmetric distribution of cell surface receptors during mitosis could generate asymmetric cell divisions by yielding daughters with different environmental responsiveness and, thus, different fates. We have found that in mouse embryonic forebrain ventricular and subventricular zones, the EGFR can distribute asymmetrically during(More)
Neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in the adult subventricular zone (SVZ) are associated with ependymal and vasculature niches, which regulate stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. Activated Type B stem cells and their progeny, the transit-amplifying type C cells, which express EGFR, are most highly associated with vascular cells, indicating that this(More)
Recent advances in microbiology, such as cloning, demonstrate that increasingly complex micromanipulation strategies are required for manipulating individual biological cells. In this paper, we present a microrobotic system capable of conducting automatic embryo pronuclei DNA injection (cell injection). Conventionally, cell injection has been conducted(More)