Learn More
OBJECTIVE The role of dopamine in the addictive process (loss of control and compulsive drug intake) is poorly understood. A consistent finding in drug-addicted subjects is a lower level of dopamine D2 receptors. In cocaine abusers, low levels of D2 receptors are associated with a lower level of metabolism in the orbitofrontal cortex. Because the(More)
OBJECTIVE The therapeutic effects of methylphenidate in the treatment of attention deficit disorder have been attributed to its ability to increase the synaptic concentration of dopamine by blocking the dopamine transporters. However, the levels of dopamine transporter blockade achieved by therapeutic doses of methylphenidate are not known. This study(More)
Methamphetamine is a popular drug of abuse that is neurotoxic to dopamine (DA) terminals when administered to laboratory animals. Studies in methamphetamine abusers have also documented significant loss of DA transporters (used as markers of the DA terminal) that are associated with slower motor function and decreased memory. The extent to which the loss of(More)
The distribution volume ratio (DVR), which is a linear function of receptor availability, is widely used as a model parameter in imaging studies. The DVR corresponds to the ratio of the DV of a receptor-containing region to a nonreceptor region and generally requires the measurement of an arterial input function. Here we propose a graphical method for(More)
OBJECTIVE Methamphetamine is a popular and highly addictive drug of abuse that has raised concerns because it has been shown in laboratory animals to be neurotoxic to dopamine terminals. The authors evaluated if similar changes occur in humans and assessed if they were functionally significant. METHOD Positron emission tomography scans following(More)
The reinforcing effects of cocaine and methylphenidate have been linked to their ability to block dopamine transporters (DAT). Using positron emission tomography (PET), we previously showed that intravenous cocaine induced a significant level of DAT blockade, which was associated with the intensity for self-reports of "high" in cocaine abusers. In this(More)
OBJECTIVE Methamphetamine has raised concerns because it may be neurotoxic to the human brain. Although prior work has focused primarily on the effects of methamphetamine on dopamine cells, there is evidence that other neuronal types are affected. The authors measured regional brain glucose metabolism, which serves as a marker of brain function, to assess(More)
It has been hypothesized that ethanol's actions on the dopamine (DA) system may participate in addiction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the DA system in the brain of alcoholics. We evaluated 10 alcoholics and 17 nonalcoholics using positron emission tomography and [11C]raclopride to measure DA D2 receptors. In addition, in 5 of the alcoholics(More)
OBJECTIVE This study assessed whether brain dopamine D2 receptor levels, which show significant intersubject variability, predict reinforcing responses to psychostimulants in humans. METHOD [11C]Raclopride and positron emission tomography were used to measure D2 receptor levels in 23 healthy men (mean age = 34 years, SD = 7) who had no drug abuse(More)
OBJECTIVE The authors have shown that decreases in dopamine D2 receptors in cocaine abusers were associated with decreased metabolism in the cingulate and prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices. To assess whether increasing dopamine would reverse these metabolic decrements, they measured the effects of methylphenidate, a drug that increases dopamine, on(More)