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T his paper studies echelon stock (R, nQ) policies in serial production/inventory systems with stochastic demand. We provide a recursive procedure to compute the steady state echelon inventory levels of the systems, which can be used to evaluate the long-run average holding and backorder costs as well as other performance measures. The procedure is based(More)
BACKGROUND Recent reports have indicated that microRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in malignancies, and regulations in the progress of adult leukemia. The role of miRNAs in pediatric leukemia still needs to be established. The purpose of this study was to investigate the aberrantly expressed miRNAs in pediatric acute leukemia and demonstrate miRNA(More)
Multidrug resistance (MDR) and disease relapse are challenging clinical problems in the treatment of leukaemia. Relapsed disease is frequently refractory to chemotherapy and exhibits multiple drug resistance. Therefore, it is important to identify the mechanism by which cancer cells develop resistance. In this study, we used microRNA (miRNA) microarray and(More)
We consider inventory systems with several distinct items. Demands occur at constant, item specific rates. The items are interdependent because of jointly incurred fixed procurement costs: The joint cost structure reflects general economies of scale, merely assuming a monotonicity and concavity (submodularity) property. Under a power-of-two policy each item(More)
We consider a distribution system with a central warehouse and multiple retailers. The warehouse orders from an outside supplier and replenishes the retailers which in turn satisfy customer demand. The retailers are nonidentical, and their demand processes are independent compound Poisson. There are economies of scale in inventory replenishment, which is(More)
Service ¯rms have been increasingly competing for market share on the basis of delivery-time. Many ¯rms now choose to set customer expectation by announcing their maximal delivery-time. Customers will be satis¯ed if their perceived delivery-times are shorter than their expectations. This gap model of service quality is used in this paper to study how a ¯rm(More)
This paper integrates pricing and replenishment decisions for the following prototypical two-echelon distribution system with deterministic demands. A supplier distributes a single product to multiple retailers, who in turn sell it to consumers. The retailers serve geographically dispersed, heterogeneous markets. The demand in each retail market arrives(More)