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CONTEXT A combination of methods is used for diagnosis of bladder cancer because no single procedure detects all malignancies. Urine tests are frequently part of an evaluation, but have either been nonspecific for cancer or required specialized analysis at a laboratory. OBJECTIVE To investigate whether a point-of-care proteomic test that measures the(More)
Integrin-mediated cell adhesion causes activation of MAP kinases and increased tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Autophosphorylation of FAK leads to the binding of SH2-domain proteins including Src-family kinases and the Grb2-Sos complex. Since Grb2-Sos is a key regulator of the Ras signal transduction pathway, one plausible(More)
PURPOSE Neuroendocrine tumors of the bladder comprise a small subset of all bladder tumors. To improve our understanding of this tumor and define outcomes with current management, we performed a retrospective review of these cases. MATERIALS AND METHODS We reviewed the records of 88 patients with small cell bladder carcinoma evaluated at our institution(More)
The antifreeze glycoprotein-fortified Antarctic notothenioid fishes comprise the predominant fish suborder in the isolated frigid Southern Ocean. Their ecological success undoubtedly entailed evolutionary acquisition of a full suite of cold-stable functions besides antifreeze protection. Prior studies of adaptive changes in these teleost fishes generally(More)
BACKGROUND Screening mammography detects breast cancers earlier than those detected symptomatically, and so mammographically detected breast cancers tend to have better prognoses. The so-called stage shift that results from screen detection is subject to lead-time and length biases, and so earlier detection may not translate into longer survival. We used(More)
PURPOSE Enteric type adenocarcinomas arising in the dome of the bladder or along the urachal ligament are uncommon. To improve our understanding of urachal carcinoma and define outcome with current management, we performed a retrospective review of cases seen at the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. MATERIALS AND METHODS We reviewed the records of 42 patients(More)
Tumor-infiltrating cytotoxic T lymphocytes (TILs), including CD8 TILs, have been associated with favorable clinical outcomes in multiple tumor types. Tumor-infiltrating CD8 T cells and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I expression in urothelial carcinoma (UC) have not been previously reported. Most immune responses are mediated by local(More)
PURPOSE Although rarely curative, chemotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment for metastatic urothelial cancer. The role of surgery for metastatic disease is not well established for urothelial cancer, but is sometimes undertaken in the face of persistent or recurrent disease that can be surgically resected. MATERIALS AND METHODS We identified 31(More)
A growing body of evidence suggests that siRNA could generate off-target effects through different mechanisms. However, the full impact of off-target gene regulation on phenotypic induction and accordingly on data interpretation in the context of large-scale siRNA library screen has not been reported. Here we report on off-target gene silencing effects(More)
BACKGROUND Breast cancer mortality (BCM) in the United States declined from 33.1 per 100,000 women in 1990 to 26.6 per 100,000 women in 2000, yielding a 19.6% relative decline in BCM since 1990. Our goal is to apportion this decline between screening and therapy and to be able to state with some certainty that these interventions affected this decline. (More)