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Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is characterized by neuroinflammation, brain edema, and cerebral damage leading to impairment of neurobehavioral function. Triptolide (PG-490), a diterpenoid component from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F., has anti-inflammatory properties. Whether triptolide has neuroprotective functions when treating TBI is unclear. To(More)
BACKGROUND In the brain, the inducible form of heme oxygenase (HO-1) has been recently demonstrated to exacerbate early brain injury produced by intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke which incident rate has been correlated with cigarette smoking previously. Interestingly, cigarette smoke (CS) or chemicals present in CS have been shown to induce HO-1 expression(More)
Capsaicin-sensitive lung vagal afferents (CSLVAs) are important in detecting pulmonary reactive oxygen species (ROS). We investigated the mechanisms underlying the stimulation of CSLVAs by inhaled cigarette smoke (CS) in 216 anesthetized rats. In spontaneously breathing rats, CS evoked a CSLVA-mediated reflex bradypnea that was prevented by(More)
In a series of studies carried out in different experimental models, we investigated the type(s) of lung afferents and mechanism(s) underlying the cigarette smoke-induced airway irritation and cough. In healthy non-smokers, the intensity of airway irritation and cough evoked by cigarette smoke was markedly reduced after premedication with hexamethonium. A(More)
Inhalation of H2O2 is known to evoke bradypnea followed by tachypnea, which are reflexes resulting from stimulation by reactive oxygen species of vagal lung capsaicin-sensitive and myelinated afferents, respectively. This study investigated the pharmacological receptors and chemical mediators involved in triggering these responses. The ventilatory responses(More)
BACKGROUND Laryngeal exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) evokes sensory irritation, but the mechanisms are largely unclear. The TRPA1 and TRPV1 receptors are two types of Ca(2+)-permeant channels located at the terminals of airway capsaicin-sensitive afferents. We investigated the mechanisms underlying the airway reflex evoked by laryngeal CS exposure in(More)
Neonatal capsaicin treatment chronically ablates unmyelinated C fibers, yet also destroys a small amount of myelinated fibers. Inhalation of wood smoke evokes respiratory reflexes resulting from stimulation of both lung C-fiber nerve endings (unmyelinated afferents) and irritant receptors (myelinated afferents). This study investigated the influences of(More)
Patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) display enhanced laryngeal reflex reactivity to stimuli that may be due to sensitization of the laryngeal C-fibers by acid and pepsin. Menthol, a ligand of transient receptor potential melastatin-8 (TRPM8), relieves throat irritation. However, the possibility that GERD induces laryngeal C-fiber(More)
Oscillatory phenomena abound in many types of signals. Identifying the individual oscillatory components that constitute an observed biological signal leads to profound understanding about the biological system. The instantaneous frequency (IF), the amplitude modulation (AM), and their temporal variability are widely used to describe these oscillatory(More)
AIMS We investigated the molecular mechanism underlying the role of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1), a Ca(2+)-permeable non-selective cation channel, in the activation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) in endothelial cells (ECs) and mice. METHODS AND RESULTS In ECs, TRPV1 ligands (evodiamine or capsaicin) promoted NO(More)