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To investigate whether breathing pattern variability can serve as a potential weaning predictor for postoperative patients recovering from systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). A prospective measurement of retrospectively analyzed breathing pattern variability in a surgical intensive care unit. Seventy-eight mechanically ventilated SIRS patients(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare, using two large nationwide population-based data sets, the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes (low birthweight [LBW], preterm birth, small for gestational age [SGA] and congenital anomalies) among pregnant women with hyperthyroidism classified into three groups: receiving propylthiouracil (PTU) treatment during pregnancy, receiving(More)
Berberine, a botanical alkaloid purified from Cortidis rhizoma, has effects in cardiovascular diseases, yet the mechanism is not fully understood. Foam cells play a critical role in the progression of atherosclerosis. This study aimed to investigate the effect of berberine on the formation of foam cells by macrophages and the underlying mechanism. Treatment(More)
Mainstream cigarette smoke (CS) and wood smoke (WS) were compared in terms of their pulmonary CYP1A1 inducibility. The inducibility was assessed in pulmonary microsomes from rats exposed to freshly generated CS or WS and in rat lung explants treated with extracts of CS or WS total particulate matter (TPM). Mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and(More)
We investigated whether AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a multi-functional regulator of energy homeostasis, participates in the regulation of erythropoietin (EPO)-mediated activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in endothelial cells (ECs) and mice. In ECs, treatment with EPO increased the phosphorylation of AMPK, acetyl-CoA carboxylase(More)
In the brain, the inducible form of heme oxygenase (HO-1) has been recently demonstrated to exacerbate early brain injury produced by intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke which incident rate has been correlated with cigarette smoking previously. Interestingly, cigarette smoke (CS) or chemicals present in CS have been shown to induce HO-1 expression in various(More)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is characterized by neuroinflammation, brain edema, and cerebral damage leading to impairment of neurobehavioral function. Triptolide (PG-490), a diterpenoid component from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F., has anti-inflammatory properties. Whether triptolide has neuroprotective functions when treating TBI is unclear. To(More)
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors have been identified in numerous tissues containing norepinephrine. Carotid bodies are sensory organs that detect changes in partial pressure of arterial oxygen and contain substantial amounts of norepinephrine. However, neither the presence nor the functional significance of alpha 2-receptors in the carotid body is known. The(More)
Erythropoietin (EPO), the key hormone for erythropoiesis, also increases nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability in endothelial cells (ECs), yet the definitive mechanisms are not fully understood. Increasing evidence has demonstrated that β common receptor (βCR) plays a crucial role in EPO-mediated non-hematopoietic effects. We investigated the role of βCR in(More)
BACKGROUND Laryngeal exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) evokes sensory irritation, but the mechanisms are largely unclear. The TRPA1 and TRPV1 receptors are two types of Ca(2+)-permeant channels located at the terminals of airway capsaicin-sensitive afferents. We investigated the mechanisms underlying the airway reflex evoked by laryngeal CS exposure in(More)