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BACKGROUND We evaluated the amounts of amyloid beta (Abeta)) peptides in the central nervous system (CNS) and in reservoirs outside the CNS and their potential impact on Abeta plasma levels and Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. METHODS Amyloid beta levels were measured in (1) the plasma of AD and nondemented (ND) controls in a longitudinal study, (2)(More)
Aging is an important determinant of adult hippocampal neurogenesis as the proliferation of neural stem/precursor cells (NSCs) declines dramatically before middle age. Contrary to this, physical exercise is known to promote adult hippocampal neurogenesis. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of mandatory treadmill running (TR) on(More)
Cerebral hypoglycemia/hypometabolism is associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is routinely used to assist clinical diagnosis of AD by brain imaging. However, whether cerebral hypoglycemia/hypometabolism contributes to the development of AD or is a response of reduced neuronal activity remains unclear. To investigate the causal relationship, we(More)
The present study was undertaken to assess the ability of ovarian hormones to alter methamphetamine (MA)-induced dopaminergic toxicity in male and female mice gonadectomized at 4 and 6 weeks of age. None of the following three treatments, estradiol benzoate (EB, 3 x 0.47 microg), progesterone (Prog, 3 x 0.47 microg), or EB (2 x 0.47 microg) followed by Prog(More)
Context-induced drug craving and continuous drug use manifest the critical roles of specific memory episodes associated with the drug use experiences. Drug-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in C57BL/6J mouse model, in this regard, is an appropriate behavioral paradigm to study such drug use-associated memories. Requirement of protein synthesis in(More)
Chronic exercise has been reported to improve cognitive function. However, whether and how different types of exercise affect various learning and memory tasks remain uncertain. To address this issue, male BALB/c mice were trained for 4 weeks under two different exercise protocols: moderate treadmill running or voluntary wheel running. After exercise(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disease. Post-mortem examination and brain imaging studies indicate that neurodegeneration is evident in the hippocampus and amygdala of very early stage AD patients. Exercise training is known to enhance hippocampus- and amygdala-associated neuronal function. Here, we investigated the effects of(More)
Closed-head injury (CHI) usually involves both physical damage of neurons and neuroinflammation. Although exercise promotes neuronal repair and suppresses neuroinflammation, CHI patients currently often remain resting during the post-traumatic period. This study aimed to investigate whether and how postinjury exercise benefited the brain structure and(More)
The objective of this study was to search for brain-specific binding proteins that participated in Abeta aggregation. Immunoprecipitation of Abeta in Alzheimer's brain homogenate revealed a major co-precipitating 16-kDa protein band, which was identified through mass spectrometry as hemoglobin (Hb) alpha and beta chains. Hemoglobin was distributed in(More)
In the VLSI design process, a design implementation often needs to be corrected because of new specifications or design constraint violations. This correction process is referred to as <i>engineering change (EC)</i>. Usually, an EC problem is resolved by using spare cells, which have been inserted into the unused spaces of a chip. In this paper, we propose(More)