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Oxidative stress is one of the most important pathological mechanisms in neurodegenerative diseases and ischemia. Recent studies have indicated that the sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling pathway is involved in these diseases, but the underlying mechanisms remains elusive. Here we report that the SHH pathway was activated in primary cultured cortical neurons(More)
BACKGROUND Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a pleiotropic proinflammatory cytokine and contributes to many kinds of cardiovascular diseases via its receptors (TNFR1/TNFR2). We hypothesize that TNF-α plays a role in the pathogenesis of chronic atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS Sixty-seven consecutive patients who were scheduled to have cardiac(More)
Let A be a finite subset of Z 2. We say A tiles Z 2 with the translation set C, if any integer z ∈ Z 2 can be represented as z1 + z2, z1 ∈ A, z2 ∈ C in a unique way. In this case we call A a Z 2-tile and write A ⊕ C = Z 2. A tile A is said to be a normal Z 2-tile if there exists a periodic set C such that A ⊕ C = Z 2. We characterize all normal Z 2-tiles(More)
The L-type calcium channel (LCC) plays a regulatory role in various physical and pathological processes. In the vasculature, LCCs mediate agonist-induced vascular smooth muscle contraction. However, whether LCC-mediated vessel responses to certain vasoconstrictors vary among species remains unclear. The coronary arteries were dissected from the hearts of(More)
BACKGROUND Ablation of idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) originating from the vicinity of tricuspid annulus (TA) is often unsuccessful via inferior approach. We report the initial experience with catheter ablation of VAs arising from the vicinity of the TA via superior approach. METHODS We retrospectively studied 36 patients with VAs arising from(More)
For a family Ω of sets in R and a finite subset S of R, let pΩ(S) be the number of distinct sets of the form S ∩ ω for all ω ∈ Ω. The maximum pattern complexity pΩ(k) is the maximum of pΩ(S) among S with #S = k. The S attaining the maximum is considered as the most effective sampling to distinguish the sets in Ω. We obtain the exact values or at least the(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of the present study is to analyze the epidemiological profile of patients with abnormal valvular structure and function and highlight the etiological spectrum and management of valvular heart disease (VHD) in a single cardiovascular center of Southern China in five years. METHODS The retrospective study included 19,428 consecutive(More)