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Purified retrovirus Gag proteins or Gag protein fragments are able to assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs) in vitro in the presence of RNA. We have examined the role of nucleic acid and of the NC domain in assembly of VLPs from a Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) Gag protein and have characterized these VLPs using transmission electron microscopy (TEM),(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravitreal aflibercept injection (IAI) for the treatment of macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). DESIGN Randomized, double-masked, phase 3 trial. PARTICIPANTS A total of 188 patients with macular edema secondary to CRVO. METHODS Patients received IAI 2 mg (IAI 2Q4) (n = 114)(More)
The vacuolar-type proton-translocating ATPase of clathrin-coated vesicles is composed of an integral membrane proton channel (VB) and a peripheral catalytic sector (VC). Native enzyme can catalyze the hydrolysis of both MgATP and CaATP and support proton pumping when reconstituted into liposomes. In contrast, isolated VC catalyzes only Ca(2+)-activated ATP(More)
The structural protein Gag is the only viral product required for retrovirus assembly. Purified Gag proteins or fragments of Gag are able in vitro to spontaneously form particles resembling immature virions, but this process requires nucleic acid, as well as the nucleocapsid domain of Gag. To examine the role of nucleic acid in the assembly in vitro, we(More)
The Gag protein of retroviruses alone can polymerize into regular virus-like particles (VLPs) both in vitro and in vivo. In most circumstances the capsid (CA) and nucleocapsid (NC) domains of Gag as well as some form of nucleic acid are required for this process. The mechanism by which NC-nucleic acid interaction promotes assembly has remained obscure. We(More)
As also found for other retroviruses, the Rous sarcoma virus structural protein Gag is necessary and sufficient for formation of virus-like particles (VLPs). Purified polypeptide fragments comprising most of Gag spontaneously assemble in vitro at pH 6.5 into VLPs lacking a membrane, a process that requires nucleic acid. We showed previously that the minimum(More)
During retrovirus assembly, the polyprotein Gag directs protein multimerization, membrane binding, and RNA packaging. It is unknown whether assembly initiates through Gag-Gag interactions in the cytosol or at the plasma membrane. We used two fluorescence techniques-two-photon fluorescence resonance energy transfer and fluorescence correlation(More)
To reach the lysosomes, down-regulated receptors such as the epidermal growth factor receptor must first be sorted into internal vesicles of late endosomes (multivesicular bodies), a ubiquitin-dependent event that requires the coordinated function of the endosome sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) proteins. Here we report that CHMP3, an(More)
The long-term sequelae of vasectomy were studied in a retrospective cohort study of 4596 vasectomized and 4340 nonvasectomized farmers from eight rural communes in Sichuan, People's Republic of China. The mean duration since the operation was 14.5 years with a range of 10 to 25 years. At the time of evaluation the vasectomized men were generally healthier(More)
The adapalene-benzoyl peroxide (adapalene-BPO) combination gel is efficacious and safe in the treatment of acne vulgaris. We aimed in this pooled analysis to determine whether the adapalene-BPO combination demonstrates synergistic efficacy. Data were pooled and analyzed from three double-blind controlled studies, in which patients were randomized to receive(More)