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BACKGROUND The initiation of behavioral sensitization to cocaine and other psychomotor stimulants is thought to reflect N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-mediated synaptic plasticity in the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) circuitry. The importance of drug induced NMDAR mediated adaptations in ventral tegmental area (VTA) DA neurons, and its association with(More)
Utilizing a classic stroke model in rodents, middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo), we describe a novel neuroregenerative approach using the repeated intranasal administration of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide starting from day 3 poststroke for enhancing the functional recovery of injured brain. Adult rats were separated into(More)
Previous studies have indicated that methamphetamine (MA) potentiates neurodegeneration induced by ischemia in brain. We, and others, have reported that bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) is protective against MA and ischemic brain injury. The purpose of this study is to examine whether BMP7 reduces synergistic injury induced by both MA and cerebral(More)
The abuse of psychostimulants, such as methamphetamine (METH), is prevalent in young adults and could lead to long-term adaptations in the midbrain dopamine system in abstinent human METH abusers. Nurr1 is a gene that is critical for the survival and maintenance of dopaminergic neurons and has been implicated in dopaminergic neuron related disorders. In(More)
Recently the sonic hedgehog (shh) signaling pathway has been shown to play an important role in regulating repair and regenerative responses after brain injury, including ischemia. However, the precise cellular components that express and upregulate the shh gene and the cellular components that respond to shh signaling remain to be identified. In this(More)
OBJECTIVE Cerebral ischemia can activate endogenous reparative processes, such as proliferation of endogenous neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in the subventricular zone (SVZ). Most of these new cells die shortly after injury. The purpose of this study was to examine a novel strategy for treatment of stroke at 1 week after injury by enhancing the survival of(More)
Retinoic acid (RA), a biologically active derivative of vitamin A, has protective effects against damage caused by H(2)O(2) or oxygen-glucose deprivation in mesangial and PC12 cells. In cultured human osteosarcoma cells, RA enhances the expression of bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP7), a trophic factor that reduces ischemia- or neurotoxin-mediated(More)
Accumulating evidence suggest mitochondria-mediated pathways play an important role in dopaminergic neuronal cell death in Parkinson's disease (PD). Drp1, a key regulator of mitochondrial fission, has been shown to be activated and translocated to mitochondria under stress, leading to excessive mitochondria fission and dopaminergic neuronal death in vitro.(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the influence of the sonic hedgehog (shh) pathway and its receptor smoothened (smo), on the survival and functionality of dopaminergic (DA) neurons. BACKGROUND During early development, shh induces the differentiation of DA neurons. However, it is unknown whether shh signaling is required in the maturation or maintenance of DA(More)
p53, a stress response gene, is involved in diverse cell death pathways and its activation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, whether the neuronal p53 protein plays a direct role in regulating dopaminergic (DA) neuronal cell death is unknown. In this study, in contrast to the global inhibition of p53 function by(More)