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OBJECTIVE Neuronal channelopathies cause brain disorders, including epilepsy, migraine, and ataxia. Despite the development of mouse models, pathophysiological mechanisms for these disorders remain uncertain. One particularly devastating channelopathy is Dravet syndrome (DS), a severe childhood epilepsy typically caused by de novo dominant mutations in the(More)
INTRODUCTION Denosumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody that inhibits receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL), an essential mediator of osteoclast formation, function, and survival that has been shown to decrease bone turnover and increase bone mineral density (BMD) in treated patients. We assessed the long-term efficacy and safety(More)
Panarthropods are typified by disparate grades of neurological organization reflecting a complex evolutionary history. The fossil record offers a unique opportunity to reconstruct early character evolution of the nervous system via exceptional preservation in extinct representatives. Here we describe the neurological architecture of the ventral nerve cord(More)
UNLABELLED Denosumab is a monoclonal antibody to RANKL. In this randomized, placebo-controlled study of 412 postmenopausal women with low BMD, subcutaneous denosumab given every 3 or 6 mo was well tolerated, increased BMD, and decreased bone resorption markers for up to 24 mo. Continued study of denosumab is warranted in the treatment of low BMD in(More)
CONTEXT Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the world's highest-volume chemicals in use today. Previous studies have suggested BPA disturbs body weight regulation and promotes obesity and insulin resistance. But epidemiological data in humans were limited. OBJECTIVE Our objective was to determine whether BPA associates with obesity and insulin resistance. (More)
BACKGROUND Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) allows clinically relevant measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) at central and appendicular skeletal sites, but DXA has a limited ability to assess bone geometry and cannot distinguish between the cortical and trabecular bone compartments. Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) can supplement DXA by(More)
Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV) is regulated by T(3) in a time- and concentration-dependent manner in the developing rat brain and plays an important role in neuronal-specific gene regulation. T(3) treatment, but not retinoic acid (RA), stimulated endogenous CaMKIV mRNA 5-fold in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells differentiated into(More)
BACKGROUND Previous studies have demonstrated that fetuin-A is related to insulin resistance among subjects with normal glucose tolerance but not patients with type 2 diabetes. There are limited data available concerning fetuin-A and insulin resistance in Chinese. We aimed to study the association of fetuin-A with insulin resistance among participants with(More)
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most commonly sustained arrhythmia in clinical practice. Despite the extensive studies, the pathophysiology of AF, however, remains incompletely understood. Studies have demonstrated that oxidative stress may be involved in cardiac structural and electrical remodeling. More recently, a growing body of evidence suggests that(More)
Neuropils in the cerebral midline of Panarthropoda exhibit a wide spectrum of neuroarchitectures--from rudimentary to highly elaborated--and which at first sight defy a unifying neuroarchitectural principle. Developmental approaches have shown that in model arthropods such as insects, conserved cellular and molecular mechanisms first establish a simple axon(More)