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The present paper studied the effect and mechanism of neurosteroid pregnenolone sulfate (PREGS) on spontaneous glutamate release using electrophysiological and biochemical methods combined with a pharmacological approach. The results suggested that PREGS had a selective enhancing effect on spontaneous glutamate release in the prelimbic cortex and the(More)
Considerable evidence suggests that depression is related to interhemispheric functional coordination deficits. For depression, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most rapid and effective therapy, but its underlying mechanism remains unknown. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of ECT on the interhemispheric functional coordination in(More)
Compared to SiGe, InP HBTs offer superior electron transport but inferior scaling and parasitic reduction. Figures of merit for mixed-signal ICs are developed and HBT scaling laws for improved circuit speed are introduced. Device and circuit results are summarized, including 390 GHz f/sub /spl tau// / 500 GHz f/sub max/ DHBTs, 174 GHz amplifiers, and 150(More)
The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN mission (MAVEN), launched on 18 November 2013, is now in its primary science phase, orbiting Mars with a 4.5 h period. In this study, we use a time-dependent MHD model to interpret plasma observations made by MAVEN particle and field instruments. Detailed comparisons between the model and the relevant plasma(More)
In this paper, a quantum reinforcement learning method is proposed for repeated game theory. First, the quantum reinforcement learning algorithm is introduced based on quantum state superposition principle and its superiority is analyzed. Then, it is applied to repeated games and the experiments show its effectiveness. Related issues are also discussed(More)
The effect of a brief pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) convulsive seizure on rat cerebral cortical Ca2+/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) was investigated. By immunoblot, it was found that a single PTZ seizure, lasting less than a minute, caused translocation of CaMKII alpha-subunit (alpha-CaMKII) from the particulate to the soluble fraction for(More)
Glutamate transmission from vestibular end organs to central vestibular nuclear complex (VNC) plays important role in transferring sensory information about head position and movements. Three isoforms of vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) have been considered so far the most specific markers for glutamatergic neurons/cells. In this study, VGLUT1 and(More)
Hippocampal neurons cultured from 7 to 9 d in vitro were used to observe the effect of glutamate. Treatment of glutamate for 24 h greatly decreased neuronal survival and pretreatment with pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) significantly attenuated hippocampal neuron death induced by glutamate. Moreover, glutamate dose-dependently(More)
Emerging evidence suggests that neuronal responses to N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDAR) activation/inactivation are influenced by subunit composition. For example, activation of synaptic NMDAR (comprised of GluN2A>GluN2B) phosphorylates cAMP-response-element-binding protein (CREB) at Ser 133, induces BDNF expression and promotes neuronal survival. Activation of(More)
In vivo microdialysis offers a unique approach to monitor biochemical events related to brain function and metabolism, and has been used extensively in many systems to measure the release of endogenous transmitters and other neuroactive substances during normal and pathological conditions. The characterization of neurotransmitters' changes induced by(More)