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The present study investigates how age, phonological saliency, and deviance size affect the presence of mismatch negativity (MMN) and positive mismatch response (P-MMR). This work measured the auditory mismatch responses to Mandarin lexical tones, initial consonants, and vowels in 4- to 6-year-old preschoolers using the multiple-deviant oddball paradigm.(More)
This study investigated how phonological saliency, deviance size, and maturation affect mismatch responses (MMRs) in early infancy. MMRs to Mandarin vowels and initial consonants were measured using a multi-deviant oddball paradigm in adults, newborns, and 6-month-olds. The vowel condition consisted of Mandarin syllable da as the standard, du as the large(More)
This study examined how maturation and the size of deviance affect the development of mismatch responses to Mandarin lexical tones by a multi-deviant oddball paradigm with both large deviant T1/T3 and small deviant T2/T3 pairs in newborns and 6-month-olds. The T1/T3 pair elicited a positive mismatch response (P-MMR) at birth but an adult-like mismatch(More)
CONTEXT Patients with primary aldosteronism are associated with increased myocardial fibrosis. Galectin-3 is one of the most important mediators between macrophage activation and myocardial fibrosis. OBJECTIVE To investigate whether aldosterone induces galectin-3 secretion in vitro and in vivo. METHODS AND RESULTS We investigated the possible molecular(More)
Item difficulty is a key parameter for test items. Learning this parameter in an IRT-based context with statistical methods or machine learning-based approaches is a typical research topic in the field of educational assessment. This paper reports an exploration of using a betting mechanism to assess test takers' intrinsic uncertainty about the answers to a(More)
We demonstrate applications of psycholin-guistic and sublexical information for learning Chinese characters. The knowledge about the grapheme-phoneme conversion (GPC) rules of languages has been shown to be highly correlated to the ability of reading alphabetic languages and Chinese. We build and will demo a game platform for strengthening the association(More)
We present integrated services for playing and building games for learning Chinese characters. This work is unique on two aspects: (1) students play games that are designed based on psycholinguistic principles and (2) teachers compile the games with software tools that are supported by sublexical information in Chinese. Players of the games experience and(More)
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