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Human monkeypox was first recognized outside Africa in 2003 during an outbreak in the USA that was traced to imported monkeypox virus (MPXV)-infected West African rodents. Unlike the smallpox-like disease described in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC; a Congo Basin country), disease in the USA appeared milder. Here, analyses compared clinical,(More)
Human disease likely attributable to variola virus (VARV), the etiologic agent of smallpox, has been reported in human populations for >2,000 years. VARV is unique among orthopoxviruses in that it is an exclusively human pathogen. Because VARV has a large, slowly evolving DNA genome, we were able to construct a robust phylogeny of VARV by analyzing(More)
In acute neuronal insult events, such as stroke, traumatic brain injury, and spinal cord injury, pathological processes of secondary neuronal injury play a key role in the severity of insult and clinical prognosis. Along with nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is regarded as the third gasotransmitter and endogenous(More)
Matrix metalloproteinases 9 (MMP-9) and its endogenous inhibitor, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1), regulate homeostasis and turnover of the extra cellular matrix (ECM). They play important roles in acute cerebral infarction (ACI). The contributions of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 to the early stages of ACI are not completely understood. This study(More)
BACKGROUND During May and June 2003, an outbreak of febrile illness with vesiculopustular eruptions occurred among persons in the midwestern United States who had had contact with ill pet prairie dogs obtained through a common distributor. Zoonotic transmission of a bacterial or viral pathogen was suspected. METHODS We reviewed medical records, conducted(More)
Orf virus is a parapoxvirus that infects small ruminants worldwide. We present the case report of a 73-year-old woman with non-Hodgkins lymphoma who developed progressive orf virus lesions that were unresponsive to surgical debridement and to cidofovir therapy. The patient's orf virus infection was successfully treated with topical imiquimod despite(More)
Comparative genomics of 45 epidemiologically varied variola virus isolates from the past 30 years of the smallpox era indicate low sequence diversity, suggesting that there is probably little difference in the isolates' functional gene content. Phylogenetic clustering inferred three clades coincident with their geographical origin and case-fatality rate;(More)
BACKGROUND We report the first confirmed case of eczema vaccinatum in the United States related to smallpox vaccination since routine vaccination was discontinued in 1972. A 28-month-old child with refractory atopic dermatitis developed eczema vaccinatum after exposure to his father, a member of the US military who had recently received smallpox vaccine.(More)
Orf virus leads to self-limited, subacute cutaneous infections in children who have occupational or recreational contact with infected small ruminants. Breaches in the integument and contact with animals recently vaccinated for orf may be important risk factors in transmission. Common childhood behaviors are likely important factors in the provocation of(More)
This report describes the first reported outbreak of human monkeypox in the Republic of Congo. Eleven confirmed and probable monkeypox cases were observed during this outbreak, all were less than 18 years old, and most resided on the grounds of the Government Hospital in Impfondo. Molecular, virologic, and serologic, and diagnostic assays were used to(More)