Learn More
Deficiency in energy supply, such as occurs during hypoxia, anoxia, metabolic stress and mitochondrial failure, strongly affects the excitability of central neurons. Such lowered energy supply evokes various changes in spontaneous synaptic input to the hippocampal and cortical neurons. However, how this energy deprivation affects synaptic input to motor(More)
Visual hallucinations (VHs) are common psychiatric symptoms in patients with long-standing Parkinson's disease (PD). Treatment with neuroleptics or withdrawal of anti-PD drugs may improve VHs but will worsen motor dysfunctions. The authors report on 3 patients with long-standing PD who were treated with the cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil for the(More)
We recently showed using prepro-orexin knockout (ORX-KO) mice and orexin neuron-ablated (ORX-AB) mice that orexin neurons in the hypothalamus, but not orexin peptides per se, are indispensable for stress-induced thermogenesis. To examine whether orexin neurons are more generally involved in central thermoregulatory mechanisms, we applied other forms of(More)
OBJECTIVE This study aimed to examine whether the volume of the olfactory bulbs and tracts (OB & T) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is useful for differentiating Parkinson's disease (PD) from PD-related disorders. METHODS The study group comprised 13 patients with PD, 11 with multiple system atrophy (MSA), five with progressive supranuclear palsy, and(More)
Glycinergic neurons provide an important mechanism to control excitation of motoneurons in the brainstem and a reduction or loss of glycinergic inhibition can be deleterious by leading to hyperexcitation such as in hyperekplexia or neurodegeneration and neuronal death as in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Second messenger systems that change cyclic AMP(More)
Encephalopathy related to idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES encephalopathy) is a rare (but well-documented) syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of HES encephalopathy, particularly diffusion-weighted images (DWI) findings, have not been reported. We report a case of HES encephalopathy in a 79-year-old male presenting with a focal(More)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the selective loss of motor neurons in the brainstem and spinal cord. Clinical studies have indicated that there is a distinct region-dependent difference in the vulnerability of motor neurons. For example, the motor neurons in the facial and hypoglossal nuclei are(More)
OBJECTIVE The usefulness of conventional magnetic resonance imaging (C-MRI) for diagnosing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) remains controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of C-MRI in identifying ALS, specifically the association between corticospinal tract (CST) hyperintensity on C-MRI and clinical characteristics in patients(More)