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Deficiency in energy supply, such as occurs during hypoxia, anoxia, metabolic stress and mitochondrial failure, strongly affects the excitability of central neurons. Such lowered energy supply evokes various changes in spontaneous synaptic input to the hippocampal and cortical neurons. However, how this energy deprivation affects synaptic input to motor(More)
We recently showed using prepro-orexin knockout (ORX-KO) mice and orexin neuron-ablated (ORX-AB) mice that orexin neurons in the hypothalamus, but not orexin peptides per se, are indispensable for stress-induced thermogenesis. To examine whether orexin neurons are more generally involved in central thermoregulatory mechanisms, we applied other forms of(More)
OBJECTIVE This study aimed to examine whether the volume of the olfactory bulbs and tracts (OB & T) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is useful for differentiating Parkinson's disease (PD) from PD-related disorders. METHODS The study group comprised 13 patients with PD, 11 with multiple system atrophy (MSA), five with progressive supranuclear palsy, and(More)
A decrease in myocardial uptake of iodine-123-labeled metaiodobenzylguanidine (123I-MIBG) has been reported in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) using 123I-MIBG myocardial scintigraphy. However, the patient with autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism (AR-JP), caused by the parkin gene, presented here showed normal 123I-MIBG myocardial uptake,(More)
PURPOSE Vertebral artery hypoplasia (VAH) is a common congenital anatomical variation. In previous reports, it was unclear whether VAH was an independent risk factor for posterior circulation ischemia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of VAH on posterior circulation ischemia. METHODS Subjects were patients with acute ischemic stroke(More)
Visual hallucinations (VHs) are common psychiatric symptoms in patients with long-standing Parkinson's disease (PD). Treatment with neuroleptics or withdrawal of anti-PD drugs may improve VHs but will worsen motor dysfunctions. The authors report on 3 patients with long-standing PD who were treated with the cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil for the(More)
Encephalopathy related to idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES encephalopathy) is a rare (but well-documented) syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of HES encephalopathy, particularly diffusion-weighted images (DWI) findings, have not been reported. We report a case of HES encephalopathy in a 79-year-old male presenting with a focal(More)
Glycinergic neurons provide an important mechanism to control excitation of motoneurons in the brainstem and a reduction or loss of glycinergic inhibition can be deleterious by leading to hyperexcitation such as in hyperekplexia or neurodegeneration and neuronal death as in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Second messenger systems that change cyclic AMP(More)
Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are recognized as a manifestation of arteriolosclerosis in cerebral small vessels. However, little is known regarding whether stroke patients with CMBs often have systemic atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to elucidate this issue using the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI), a new index of systemic(More)