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BACKGROUND The mammalian epidermis is maintained by the ongoing proliferation of a subpopulation of keratinocytes known as epidermal stem cells. Sonic hedgehog (Shh) can regulate morphogenesis of hair follicles and several types of skin cancer, but the effect of Shh on proliferation of human putative epidermal stem cells (HPESCs) is poorly understood. (More)
The skin is susceptible to different injuries and diseases. One major obstacle in skin tissue engineering is how to develop functional three-dimensional (3D) substitute for damaged skin. Previous studies have proved a 3D dynamic simulated microgravity (SMG) culture system as a "stimulatory" environment for the proliferation and differentiation of stem(More)
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP), and MMP-TIMP interactions may contribute to the highly programmed process of embryo implantation. The loss of the delicate MMP-TIMP balance may lead to abnormal implantation. The role of TIMP-4 in mouse implantation has not been reported. This study examined mRNA and protein(More)
R-spondin proteins are novel Wnt/β-catenin agonists, which signal through their receptors leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor (LGR) 4/5/6 and substantially enhance Wnt/β-catenin activity. R-spondins are reported to function in embryonic development. They also play important roles in stem cell functions in adult tissues, such as the(More)
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