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Systemic exposure to nicotine induces glutamatergic synaptic plasticity on dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), but mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we report that single, systemic exposure in rats to nicotine (0.17 mg/kg free base) increases the ratio of DA neuronal currents mediated by AMPA relative to NMDA receptors (AMPA/NMDA(More)
Nicotine promotes glutamatergic synaptic plasticity in dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), which is thought to be an important mechanism underlying nicotine reward. However, it is unclear whether exposure of nicotine alone to VTA slice is sufficient to increase glutamatergic synaptic strength on DA neurons and which nicotinic(More)
A predominant portion of Internet services, like content delivery networks, news broadcasting, blogs sharing and social networks, etc., is data centric. A significant amount of new data is generated by these services each day. To efficiently store and maintain backups for such data is a challenging task for current data storage systems. Chunking based(More)
BACKGROUND Few population studies have reported on the long-term changes in the internal cadmium dose and simultaneously occurring mortality. OBJECTIVE We monitored blood cadmium (BCd), 24-hr urinary cadmium (UCd), and mortality in an environmentally exposed population. METHODS Starting from 1985, we followed BCd (until 2003), UCd (until 1996), and(More)
As a key approach to securing large networks, existing anomaly detection techniques focus primarily on network traffic data. However, the sheer volume of such data often renders detailed analysis very expensive and reduces the effectiveness of these tools. In this paper, we propose a light-weight anomaly detection approach based on unproductive DNS traffic,(More)
In this paper, we propose a novel technique for inferring the distribution of application classes present in the aggregated traffic flows between endpoints, which exploits both the statistics of the traffic flows, and the spatial distribution of those flows across the network. Our method employs a two-step supervised model, where the bootstrapping step(More)
Today's Internet contains a large portion of "dynamic" IP addresses, which are assigned to clients upon request. A significant amount of malicious activities have been reported from dynamic IP space, such as spamming, botnets, etc. Accurate identification of dynamic IP addresses will help build blacklists of suspicious hosts with more confidence, and help(More)
As Internet communications and applications become more complex,operating, managing and securing networks have become increasingly challenging tasks. There are urgent demands for more sophisticated techniques for understanding and analyzing the behavioral characteristics of network traffic. In this paper, we study the network traffic behaviors using traffic(More)
The present study investigated effects of task switching between pro- and antisaccades and switching the direction of these saccades (response switching) on performance of younger and older adults. Participants performed single-task blocks, in which only pro- or only antisaccades had to be made as well as mixed-task blocks, in which pro- and antisaccades(More)