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The recent approval of Provenge has brought new hope for anticancer vaccine therapies. However, the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment seems to impair the efficacy of vaccine therapies. The abnormal tumor vasculature creates a hypoxic microenvironment that polarizes inflammatory cells toward immune suppression. Moreover, tumors systemically alter(More)
UNLABELLED Sorafenib, a broad tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is the only approved systemic therapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) but provides limited survival benefits. Recently, immunotherapy has emerged as a promising treatment strategy, but its role remains unclear in HCCs, which are associated with decreased cytotoxic CD8(+) T-lymphocyte(More)
Increasing evidence suggests that myeloid bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) play a critical role in lung metastasis. Blockade of VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR1) has been proposed as a potential strategy to limit myeloid BMDC recruitment to tumors. However, preclinical evidence indicates that this strategy may not be effective in all tumors. Thus, establishing(More)
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is occasionally amplified and/or mutated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and can be coexpressed with other members of the HER receptor family to form functional heterodimers. We therefore investigated lung cancer cell lines for alterations in EGFR gene copy number, enhanced expression of EGFR and other HER(More)
The recent approval of a prostate cancer vaccine has renewed hope for anticancer immunotherapies. However, the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment may limit the effectiveness of current immunotherapies. Antiangiogenic agents have the potential to modulate the tumor microenvironment and improve immunotherapy, but they often are used at high doses in the(More)
Tumor neovascularization and growth might be promoted by the recruitment of bone marrow-derived cells (BMDC), which include endothelial precursor cells and "vascular modulatory" myelomonocytic (CD11b+) cells. BMDCs may also drive tumor regrowth after certain chemotherapeutic and vascular disruption treatments. In this study, we evaluated the role of BMDC(More)
Antiangiogenic therapy is associated with increased radiographic responses in glioblastomas, but tumors invariably recur. Because tumor-associated macrophages have been shown to mediate escape from antiangiogenic therapy in preclinical models, we examined the role of macrophages in patients with recurrent glioblastoma. We compared autopsy brain specimens(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate blood pressure (BP) and pulse rate (PR) changes during urodynamic (UD) examinations in patients with suprasacral spinal cord injury (SCI). DESIGN A case control study. SETTING Tertiary hospital affiliated with a medical university. PATIENTS Control subjects (n=22) and patients with suprasacral SCI (n=120). INTERVENTIONS Not(More)
Gene mutations involving epigenetic regulators recently have been described in adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Similar studies are limited in children. We analyzed gene mutations and cooperation in pediatric AML with special reference on mutated epigenetic regulators. Nineteen gene mutations, including 8 class I genes, 4 class II genes, WT1 and TP53(More)
BACKGROUND Angiogenesis is the process of neovascularization from pre-existing vasculature and is involved in various physiological and pathological processes. Inhibitors of angiogenesis, administered either as individual drugs or in combination with other chemotherapy, have been shown to benefit patients with various cancers. Endostatin, a 20-kDa(More)